'The Special Relationship' With Militant Islam
NATO Backed Islamic Terrorism In The Balkans

The West's Secret Islamic Jihad In Former Yugoslavia
www.nlpwessex.org/docs/balkansusbackterrorism.htm

PRESS REPORTS


"You're either with us or against us in the fight against terror."
US President George W. Bush
CNN, 6 November 2001

“We condemn very strongly terrorist actions in Kosovo. The UCK [KLA] is, without any question, a terrorist group.”
United States special envoy to the Balkans, Robert Gelbard, speaking about the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) 1998
Agence France Presse, 23 February 1998

Pursuing 'Regime Change' In The Balkans With The Terrorists
Linking Up In Kosovo In 1999

clarkthraci.jpg (18062 bytes) albrightthaci.jpg (20403 bytes)
Above Far Left: Hashim Thaci, Head of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), a previously State Department listed terrorist organisation, closely linked to Osama bin Laden's Al Qaeda
Above Far Right: US General Wesley Clark, NATO Supreme Allied Commander, Europe (1997 - 2000)
Above: Madeleine Albright, US Secretary of State, greets the KLA's Hashim Thaci

"I know a terrorist when I see one and these men are terrorists."
United States special envoy to the Balkans, Robert Gelbard, speaking about the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) 1998
BBC Online, 28 June 1998

The NATO Backed Islamic Jihad ('Djihad') In Kosovo

"Albanian separatism in Kosovo and Metohija was formally characterized as a 'jihad' in October 1998 at an annual international Islamic conference in Pakistan. Nonetheless, the 25,000 strong KLA continued to receive official NATO/U.S. arms and training support and, at the talks in Rambouillet, France, then Secretary of State Madeleine Albright shook hands with 'freedom fighter' Hashim Thaci, a KLA leader. As this was taking place, Europol (the European Police Organization based in The Hague) was preparing a scathing report on the connection between the KLA and international drug gangs. Even Robert Gelbard, America´s special envoy to Bosnia, officially described the KLA as Islamic terrorists. With the future status of Kosovo still in question, the only real development that may be said to be taking place there is the rise of Wahhabi Islam -- the puritanical Saudi variety favored by bin Laden -- and the fastest growing variety of Islam in the Balkans."
Al Qaeda´s Balkan Links

Wall St Journal, 1 November 2001

"In 1998, the U.S. State Department listed the KLA as a terrorist organization, indicating that it was financing its operations with money from the international heroin trade and loans from Islamic countries and individuals, among them allegedly Usama bin Laden. Another link to bin Laden is the fact that the brother of a leader in an Egyptian Djihad organization and also a military commander of Usama bin Laden, was leading an elite KLA unit during the Kosovo conflict. In 1998, the KLA was described as a key player in the drugs for arms business in 1998, 'helping to transport 2 billion USD worth of drugs annually into Western Europe'. The KLA and other Albanian groups seem to utilize a sophisticated network of accounts and companies to process funds. In 1998, Germany froze two bank accounts belonging to the 'United Kosova' organization after it had been discovered that several hundred thousand dollars had been deposited into those accounts by a convicted Kosovar Albanian drug trafficker."
'The Threat Posed by the Convergence of Organized Crime, Drugs Trafficking and Terrorism'
Ralf Mutschke, Assistant Director Of Interpol's Criminal Intelligence Division, Testimony Given To The House Judicial Committee, US Congress, 13 December 2000

"American intelligence agents have admitted they helped to train the Kosovo Liberation Army [KLA] before Nato's bombing of Yugoslavia. The disclosure angered some European diplomats, who said this had undermined moves for a political solution to the conflict between Serbs and Albanians... Several KLA leaders had the mobile phone number of General Wesley Clark, the Nato commander..."
CIA aided Kosovo guerrilla army
Sunday Times , 12 March 2000

"British and American special forces teams are working undercover in Kosovo with the rebel Kosovo Liberation Army to identify Serbian targets for Nato bombing raids.....It is the latest evidence of the growing co-operation between Nato and the KLA, a movement once denounced by the West's leaders as 'terrorists'...... The alliance is now quietly drafting the KLA into its war against Slobodan Milosevic, the Serbian leader. It is even considering plans to train them and ease the arms embargo on Yugoslavia to supply them with weapons such as mortars and rocket-propelled grenades.... They are negotiating for a long-term training deal with Military and Professional Resources International, a mercenary company run by former American officers who operate with semi-official approval from the Pentagon and played a key role in building up Croatia's armed forces..."
SAS teams move in to help KLA 'rise from the ashes'
Sunday Telegraph, 18 April 1999

NATO's Islamic Jihad In Bosnia

"The Central Intelligence Agency has its own argot for describing the hallucinatory world within which its employees move. None of its esoteric terms are more euphemistic than 'blowback', the term coined to describe operations which end up rebounding against their creators. But as the Americans slowly unravel the international network surrounding Osama bin Laden, the man they blame for the embassy bombings in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam, 'blowback' is exactly what they are finding.   Last week, it was revealed that one of those under arrest is a former Egyptian soldier named Ali Mohamed, who is alleged to have provided training and assistance to Mr bin Laden's operatives. Yet Mr Mohamed, it is clear from his record, was working for the US government at the time he provided the training: he was a Green Beret, part of America's Special Forces....  It had already been known that in those days, the US and Mr bin Laden were on the same side, but it now appears that America may actually have aided Mr bin Laden's organisation and even trained some of those who it now contends are 'terrorists'. Mr Ali may be the missing link. It had already been known that in 1989, Mr Ali came to the New York area to train mujahedin on their way to Afghanistan. Those visits have put him in the spotlight once before: among those he trained was El Sayyid Nosair, who was jailed in 1995 for killing Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of the Jewish Defence League, and, along with several others, with plotting to blow up several New York landmarks. At his trial, Mr Nosair claimed that the reason he had military manuals was that he was being trained by the US, not because he was intent on terrorism. It is uncertain whether Mr Mohamed came to New York on official business, but for some of the trips, he was a serving US Special Forces' sergeant. Mr Mohamed met the men at the Al-Kifah Refugee Centre in Brooklyn's Atlantic Avenue, a place of pivotal importance to Operation Cyclone, the American effort to support the mujahedin. The Al-Kifah Centre and the associated Afghan Refugee Services Inc were raising funds and, crucially, providing recruits for the struggle, with active American assistance....  In December 1992, a US army official met one of the Afghan veterans from Al-Kifah and offered help with a covert operation to support the Muslims in Bosnia, funded with Saudi money, according to one of those jailed for assisting with the New York bombings."
Terror 'blowback' burns CIA
Independent, 1 November 1998

"Many writers and reporters have traced al-Qa'eda and other terror groups' origins back to the Afghan war of 1979-1992, that last gasp of the Cold War when US-backed mujahedin forces fought against the invading Soviet army. It is well documented that America played a major role in creating and sustaining the mujahedin, which included Osama bin Laden's Office of Services set up to recruit volunteers from overseas ... Yet America's role in backing the mujahedin a second time in the early and mid-1990s is seldom mentioned - largely because very few people know about it, and those who do find it prudent to pretend that it never happened.... From 1992 to 1995, the Pentagon assisted with the movement of thousands of mujahedin and other Islamic elements from Central Asia into Europe, to fight alongside Bosnian Muslims against the Serbs. The Bosnia venture appears to have been very important to the rise of mujahedin forces, to the emergence of today's cross-border Islamic terrorists who think nothing of moving from state to state in the search of outlets for their jihadist mission. In moving to Bosnia, Islamic fighters were transported from the ghettos of Afghanistan and the Middle East into Europe; from an outdated battleground of the Cold War to the major world conflict of the day; from being yesterday's men to fighting alongside the West's favoured side in the clash of the Balkans. If Western intervention in Afghanistan created the mujahedin, Western intervention in Bosnia appears to have globalised it.... The Pentagon's secret alliance with Islamic elements allowed mujahedin fighters to be 'flown in', though they were initially reserved as shock troops for particularly hazardous operations against Serb forces. According to a report in the Los Angeles Times in October 2001, from 1992 as many as 4,000 volunteers from the Middle East, North Africa and Europe, 'known as the mujahedin', arrived in Bosnia to fight with the Muslims. Richard Holbrooke, America's former chief Balkans peace negotiator, has said that the Bosnian Muslims 'wouldn't have survived' without the help of the mujahedin, though he later admitted that the arrival of the mujahedin was a 'pact with the devil' from which Bosnia is still recovering. By the end of the 1990s State Department officials were increasingly worried about the consequences of this pact. Under the terms of the 1995 Dayton peace accord, the foreign mujahedin units were required to disband and leave the Balkans. Yet in 2000, the State Department raised concerns about the 'hundreds of foreign Islamic extremists' who became Bosnian citizens after fighting against the Serbs, and who pose a potential terror threat to Europe and the United States. US officials claimed that one of bin Laden's top lieutenants had sent operatives to Bosnia, and that during the 1990s Bosnia had served as a 'staging area and safe haven' for al-Qa'eda and others. The Clinton administration had discovered that it is one thing to permit the movement of Islamic groups across territories; it is quite another to rein them back in again. Indeed, for all the Clinton officials' concern about Islamic extremists in the Balkans, they continued to allow the growth and movement of mujahedin forces in Europe through the 1990s. In the late 1990s, in the run-up to Clinton's and Blair's Kosovo war of 1999, the USA backed the Kosovo Liberation Army against Serbia. According to a report in the Jerusalem Post in 1998, KLA members, like the Bosnian Muslims before them, had been 'provided with financial and military support from Islamic countries', and had been 'bolstered by hundreds of Iranian fighters or mujahedin ...[some of whom] were trained in Osama bin Laden's terrorist camps in Afghanistan'. It seems that, for all its handwringing, the USA just couldn't break the pact with the devil... It would appear that when it comes to Bosnia, many in the West have a moral blind spot..... Western intervention in Bosnia, it would appear, has become an unquestionably positive thing, something that is beyond interrogation and debate."
How we trained al-Qa'eda
Spectator, 13 September 2003

"The Clinton administration followed up by providing strong support to the KLA, even though it was known that the KLA supported the Muslim mujahadeen. Despite that knowledge, then Secretary of State Madeleine Albright had the KLA removed from the State Department list of terrorists. This action paved the way for the United States to provide the KLA with needed logistical support. At the same time, the KLA also received support from Iran and Usama bin Laden, along with 'Islamic holy warriors' who were jihad veterans from Bosnia, Chechnya and Afghanistan. Swiss journalist Richard Labeviere, in his book, 'Dollars for Terror,' said that the international Islamic networks linked to bin Laden received help from U.S. intelligence community. Indeed, Chechen sources claim that U.S. intelligence also aided them in their opposition to Russia. Given that U.S. policy in the post-Cold War period has not only been anti-Russian but anti-Iranian, the United States worked closely with Pakistan's predominantly Sunni Inter-Services Intelligence organization. Through ISI, the United States recruited Sunni mujahadeen by staging them in Chechnya to fight in Bosnia and later in Kosovo."
F.Michael Maloof, former senior Pentagon Counterterrorism Adviser
Iran subversion in Balkans
G2 Bulletin, 25 September 2006

On This Page

Overview
'Our Terrorists' - NATO's Secret Terrorism Activities In The Balkans

'As You Sow So Shall You Reap'
NATO Sided With Jihadists In Yugoslavia Who Later Conducted 9/11 And 7/7 Attacks
Full Archive Of Press And Other Reports
NATO Backed Islamic Terrorism In The Balkans

The Same Model Continued Into The Next Century
NATO's Secret Islamic Jihad In Syria
More Than A Decade After The Balkans Wars

"Lord Ashdown, the former Liberal Democrat leader [and High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina 2002 - 2006], spoke out against arming Syria's rebels and called for pressure to be put on Qatar and Saudi Arabia to cut off funding for arms. 'They do not need arms. It is an unchallenged figure that 3,500 tons of arms have been shipped in by way of Croatia with the assistance of the CIA, funded by the Saudis, funded by the Qataris, going almost exclusively to the more jihadist groups,' the former international high representative for Bosnia said in a debate. 'I know where those weapons are coming from. They are the weapons left over from the Bosnian war. They are being shipped out in large measure through Croatian ports and airports and I can tell you they are making vast sums for corrupt forces in the Balkans.' Lord Ashdown described the rebels as 'not a fit and proper collection of people for us to be providing arms to'. Britain and France favour arming the rebels, while in a change of policy Washington recently announed it would supply direct miltiary aid to opponents of President Bashar al-Assad. Officials have said they would select 'moderate rebels' for assistance.' Lord Ashdown said he knew of 'no occasion' when a route to peace was to provide more weapons. He said Syria was the 'front line in a wider conflict' involving an attempt to build up a radicalised jihadist Sunni population to fight a war against the Shia. 'This is about the preparations some are deliberately making to have a wider religious conflict,' he said....'If it is the case that Saudi Arabia and Qatar are today funding the very jihadists against which we are fighting, why are we not using international pressure, the United States, the European Union, to persuade Saudi Arabia and Qatar to stop, to prevent this?' he said."
Syria: 3,500 tons of weapons already sent to rebels, says Lord Ashdown
Telegraph, 1 July 2012

NATO Covertly Uses Saudis Post 9/11 To Run Arms From Bosnian War To Jihadists In Syria
Secretly Using The Same 'Black Flight's Model Illegally Used By Bill Clinton In The 1990s Bosnian War

Click Here


Overview
'Our Terrorists' - NATO's Terrorism Activities In The Balkans

"The Bosnian war was the first major test of the West's resolve in the post-Cold War era, and one that it unambiguously failed.... Into this already complicated situation came the ultimate 'wild card', the United States of America, the world's only superpower. A small group at the head of America's foreign policy elite intervened covertly in what it had previously called 'Europe's problem'.... Its easy answer for Bosnia's ills was 'lift and strike' - re-arm the Bosniaks (mostly Bosnian Muslims) and Croats and bomb the Serbs. At first arms were sent to Bosnia via Croatia, but the Croats were reluctant to arm the Bosnian army with sophisticated weapons, so America took it upon itself to deliver arms directly to the Bosnian Muslim Army - the ABiH. These covert air drops ['Black Flights'] began at the start of 1995. The most well-documented were the drops at Tuzla in the north of Bosnia, where they were observed by members of the UN Nordic Battalion stationed close to the dropping zone.... Nato had been manipulated to allow the US to conduct its own unilateral policy in the Balkans. The air drops were only the tip of the iceberg. A team of retired US officers planned the bloody Croatian 'liberation' of the Kraijina and the subsequent invasion of western Bosnia by the Croatian Army in the summer of 1995. ....  Senior European negotiators believe that with US backing the war could have ended two years earlier, but US desire to see the Serbs punished meant that they instead encouraged the Bosnian Government to continue fighting. The price in human terms? Over 15,000 dead and nearly 600,000 refugees."
Allies and lies
BBC Online, 22 June 2001

"The British journalist Nik Gowing tracked down several Norwegian witnesses to the Black Flights [used to arm the Bosnian Muslims]... one of the most important Norwegian witnesses, [Oivind] Moldestad [a Norwegian Air Force Captain who later gave a dramatic interview disclosing many details on the subject for a BBC documentary which is available as video on the BBC web site], would be taken aside by three American officers. They took him to a balcony on the fifth floor of a hotel in Zagreb, and made clear to him that if he stuck to his account and said any more on the subject, things could get messy for him. After reports on British television and articles in the press, journalists were also put under pressure by the American embassy in London. They heard all manner of threats. The embassy was said to have been acting on the instructions of the State Department."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 – 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions

Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

How The Clinton Administration
Wanted The Fighting To Continue In Bosnia

"In your article on Bosnia (November 25th), you say that in February 1992, before the war had started, Lord Carrington and I 'drafted a constitution that would have turned the country into a confederation of Swiss-style cantons. The Muslims refused to accept what they considered to be the disintegration of Bosnia.' Not quite. After several rounds of talks our 'principles for future constitutional arrangements for Bosnia and Hercegovina' were agreed by all three parties (Muslim, Serb and Croat) in Sarajevo on March 18th 1992 as the basis for future negotiations. These continued, maps and all, until the summer, when the mulims reneged on the agreement. Had they not done so, the Bosnian question might have been settled earlier, with less loss of (mainly Muslim) life and land. To be fair, President Izetbegovic and his aides were encouraged to scupper that deal and to fight for a unitary Bosnian state by well-meaning outsiders who thought they knew better".
Letter - Jose Cutileiro, Secretary-General of the Western European Union
Economist 9-15, September 1995

The Srebrenica Massacre
A Catastrophe Precipitated From The USA

"Some 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men and boys were murdered by Bosnian Serb forces in the UN safe haven of Srebrenica in 1995. A five-year investigation into the role of Dutch peacekeepers in the massacre was published earlier this month and quickly triggered the resignation of the entire Dutch government. A major component of the Dutch report focusing on the role of Western intelligence in the Bosnian war has, however, gone relatively unnoticed. Among other findings, the inquiry reveals U.S. involvement in an illegal weapons-smuggling pipeline to Bosnian Muslims..."
Yugoslavia: Dutch Srebrenica Report Reveals Role Of Western Intelligence Services In Bosnian War
Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, 22 April 2002

"...the [Srebrenica] enclave increasingly acquired the status of a 'protected area' for the ABiH [Muslim army], from which the ABiH could carry out hit and run operations against, often civilian, targets. These operations probably contributed to the fact that at the end of June the VRS [Serbian Army] was prepared to take no more, after which they decided to intervene: the VRS decided shortly after to capture the enclave. In this respect, the [illegal US sponsored] Black Flights to Tuzla and the sustained arms supplies to the ABiH in the eastern enclaves did perhaps contribute to the ultimate decision to attack the enclave. In this connection it is not surprising that Mladic and other Bosnian Serbs constantly complained about this, but usually received no response to their complaints..."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 – 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions

Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

"Defence analyst Tim Ripley believes that the US plot to [secretly] train and equip the Bosnian Muslims directly led to the terrible death-toll at Srebrenica later in 1995."
Allies and Lies
BBC, Correspondent, June 2001

"U.S. support for the Muslims in Bosnia also came from the person who is the new head of the Central Intelligence Agency, General Michael V. Hayden. At the time, he was director of the U.S. European Command Intelligence Directorate, based in Stuttgart, Germany. According to a Dutch government report, Hayden 'had access to virtually all intelligence' from the United States, United Nations and NATO. As a result, Hayden used his intelligence unit to allow so-called 'black flights' of arms to Muslim forces during the Bosnian campaign in 1995. General Hayden was aware that these arms were assisting many of the foreign mujahadeen, which also were receiving support from Iran and bin Laden. According to a Dutch intelligence report at the time, the shipments included 'weapons, ammunition, uniforms, helmets, new anti-tank weapons and Stingers.' These arms were said to have been dropped in Tuzla, shipped by land or air into Bosnia for the Bosnian Muslim army which included the al-Qaida-linked mujahadeen. After becoming the head of the National Security Agency in March 1999, Hayden then refused to clear the use of intelligence to halt continuing illegal shipments of arms to mujahadeen militants in the Balkans. Often, these arms were brought in discreetly by Muslim countries that were part of the United Nations peacekeeping forces sent in to prevent further violence."
F.Michael Maloof, former senior Pentagon Counterterrorism Adviser
Iran subversion in Balkans
G2 Bulletin, 25 September 2006

"The official Dutch inquiry into the 1995 Srebrenica massacre, released last week, contains one of the most sensational reports on western intelligence ever published. Officials have been staggered by its findings .... Now we have the full story of the secret alliance between the Pentagon and radical Islamist groups from the Middle East designed to assist the Bosnian Muslims... in flagrant violation of the UN security council arms embargo against all combatants in the former Yugoslavia. The result was a vast secret conduit of weapons smuggling though Croatia. This was arranged by the clandestine agencies of the US, Turkey and Iran, together with a range of radical Islamist groups, including Afghan mojahedin and the pro-Iranian Hizbullah...."
America used Islamists to arm the Bosnian Muslims
Guardian, 22 April 2002

"... it was the covert arming and training of the Bosnians by the US, in breach of the UN arms embargo resolution, that was responsible for prolonging the suffering of the people of Bosnia. For Izetbegovic's government was thereby persuaded to abandon the UN peace process and not to sign up to various UN-brokered peace proposals on offer, such as those I helped broker in 1994. The correct lesson to draw from the war in Bosnia with regards to Syria is that arming any of the warring parties, however just may seem their cause, inevitably increases the intensity of conflict."
General Sir Michael Rose, Commander, UN Forces, Bosnia 1994

Letter - London Times, 16 April 2013, Print Edition, P29

"During the Soviet occupation of Afghanistan in the 1980s, the US funded large numbers of jihadists through Pakistan's secret intelligence service, the ISI. Later the US wanted to raise another jihadi corps, again using proxies, to help Bosnian Muslims fight to weaken the Serb government's hold on Yugoslavia. Those they turned to included Pakistanis in Britain. According to a recent report by the Delhi-based Observer Research Foundation, a contingent was also sent by the Pakistani government, then led by Benazir Bhutto, at the request of the Clinton administration. This contingent was formed from the Harkat-ul- Ansar (HUA) terrorist group and trained by the ISI. The report estimates that about 200 Pakistani Muslims living in the UK went to Pakistan, trained in HUA camps and joined the HUA's contingent in Bosnia. Most significantly, this was 'with the full knowledge and complicity of the British and American intelligence agencies'. As the 2002 Dutch government report on Bosnia makes clear, the US provided a green light to groups on the state department list of terrorist organisations, including the Lebanese-based Hizbullah, to operate in Bosnia - an episode that calls into question the credibility of the subsequent 'war on terror'. For nearly a decade the US helped Islamist insurgents linked to Chechnya, Iran and Saudi Arabia destabilise the former Yugoslavia. The insurgents were also allowed to move further east to Kosovo. By the end of the fighting in Bosnia there were tens of thousands of Islamist insurgents in Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo; many then moved west to Austria, Germany and Switzerland.  Less well known is evidence of the British government's relationship with a wider Islamist terrorist network. During an interview on Fox TV this summer, the former US federal prosecutor John Loftus reported that British intelligence had used the al-Muhajiroun group in London to recruit Islamist militants with British passports for the war against the Serbs in Kosovo. Since July Scotland Yard has been interested in an alleged member of al-Muhajiroun, Haroon Rashid Aswat, who some sources have suggested could have been behind the London bombings. According to Loftus, Aswat was detained in Pakistan after leaving Britain, but was released after 24 hours. He was subsequently returned to Britain from Zambia, but has been detained solely for extradition to the US, not for questioning about the London bombings. Loftus claimed that Aswat is a British-backed double agent, pursued by the police but protected by MI6. One British Muslim of Pakistani origin radicalised by the civil war in Yugoslavia was LSE-educated Omar Saeed Sheikh..... This is all the more remarkable when this is the same Omar Sheikh who, at the behest of General Mahmood Ahmed, head of the ISI, wired $100,000 to Mohammed Atta, the leading 9/11 hijacker, before the New York attacks, as confirmed by Dennis Lormel, director of FBI's financial crimes unit. Yet neither Ahmed nor Omar appears to have been sought for questioning by the US about 9/11."
Michael Meacher, former UK Environment Minister
Britain now faces its own blowback
Guardian, 10 September 2005

"The UK Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) was also aware of the American secret arms supplies to the ABiH [the Bosnian Muslim Army]. According to a British intelligence official, the DIS never made an issue of them, so as not to further damage the sensitive relationship with the US services. An internal DIS analysis concluded that the arms were delivered via 'a different network', and that the entire operation was probably led by the NSC [National Security Council].....  the DIS received a direct order from the British government not to investigate this affair. This was not permitted for the simple reason that the matter was too sensitive in the framework of American-British relations. The DIS also obtained intelligence on the secret supplies to the ABiH from the German military intelligence service and the Bundesnachrichtendienst, because some of the flights departed from Frankfurt. However, no American-German alliance existed in the matter of clandestine support to the ABiH."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 – 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions

Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

"So 'brave' Muammar Gadafy has agreed on the importance of combating terrorism. A handshake with Tony Blair has sealed his re-entry into the international community, with contracts worth several hundred million pounds for Shell and BAE to follow.... Nor is this rapid shift from terrorist to statesman confined to Libya. The US backing of Islamic terrorism in the Balkans provides another example. As the official Dutch inquiry into the 1995 Srebrenica massacre has now revealed, a secret alliance was formed between the Pentagon and radical Islamist groups to assist the Bosnian Muslims in violation of the UN arms embargo. A vast secret conduit of weapons smuggling through Croatia was organised by US, Turkish and Iranian clandestine agencies, together with Afghan mojahedin and pro-Iranian Hizbullah. Aircraft from Iran Air were used, joined by a US-sponsored fleet of C-130 Hercules.....The 78-day bombing of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999, directed by the US general Wesley Clark, was said to be stopping an alleged 'genocide' by the Serbs in Kosovo (some 2,000 bodies were later exhumed, a horrifying number but far short of the 100,000 the US predicted). The US goal was to assist the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). Yet the year before, the US state department had branded the KLA a terrorist organisation, financing its operations from the heroin trade and funds from Islamic countries and individuals, including Osama bin Laden. As James Bissett, the former Canadian ambassador to Yugoslavia, has subsequently reported: 'This did not stop the US from arming and training KLA members in Albania and sending them back into Kosovo to assassinate Serbian mayors, ambush Serbian policemen and intimidate hesitant Kosovo Albanians ... Despite a UN arms embargo, and with the support of the US, arms, ammunition and thousands of fighters were smuggled into Bosnia to help the Muslims ... Bin Laden and his network were also active in Kosovo, and KLA members trained in his camps in Afghanistan and Albania.' According to reports in April 1999, assistance was also provided by Britain's SAS. Through much of the 1990s, US support for Islamic militants in former Yugoslavia was backed up by covert US airdrops of arms, especially at Tuzla in northern Bosnia. These took place in the face of Operation Deny Flight, the UN-imposed and Nato-policed no-fly zone over Bosnia. The US House of Representatives also failed to authorise the war under the War Powers Act, making it illegal (shades of Iraq). But the airdrops were only the tip of the iceberg. Retired US officers heading Military Professional Resources Inc, a private paramilitary firm based in Virginia, planned the bloody Croatian 'liberation' of the Serb-held Krajina enclave, which resulted in the ethnic cleansing of 200,000 Serbs.  US goals in the use of the KLA as a proxy force, similar to the funding of the Contras against the leftwing Sandinista government in Nicaragua in the 1980s, were partly to remove Milosevic and break up Yugoslavia as one of the remaining Communist regimes. But related motives were to break Russia's monopoly over oil and gas transport routes and secure pro-western governments in the strategic Black Sea-Caspian Sea oil-rich basin. A crucial oil corridor, called the Trans-Balkan pipeline, designed to become the main route to the west for oil and gas extracted in central Asia, was to run from the Black Sea to the Adriatic via Bulgaria, Macedonia near the border with Kosovo, and Albania. Another was to run across Serbia to Adriatic ports in Croatia and Italy, fed by a pipeline running from a Black Sea port in Romania. The implications of this are stark."
Michael Meacher, former UK Environment Minister

The path to friendship goes via the oil and gas fields
Guardian, 27 March 2004

NATO Fraud - There Was No Genocide In Kosovo - Click Here

"President Clinton is depicting his decision to send 20,000 troops into Bosnia as a natural outgrowth of America's European alliance. But instead of seeing Bosnia as the eastern frontier of NATO, we should view the Balkans as the the western frontier of America's rapidly expanding sphere of influence in the Middle East. Until World War II, it should be recalled, the Balkans were considered not a part of Europe but of 'the Near East.' The fact that the United States is more enthusiastic than its European allies about a Bosnian Muslim state reflects, among other things, the new American role as the leader of an informal collection of Muslim nations from the Persian Gulf to the Balkans. The regions once ruled by the Ottoman Turks show signs of becoming the heart of a third American empire. Since the late 19th century, the United States has had three empires (the term refers to voluntary groupings of client states as well as traditional colonies). In each case America has steadily expanded its global influence by imposing control over the former empires of defeated great powers. The first American empire was created in the aftermath of the Spanish-American War in 1898 when the United States gobbled up Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines and much of the Caribbean. It lasted until the end of the World War II. The second American empire, from 1945 to 1989, centered on Western Europe and Asia. Now, in the years after the cold war, the United States is again establishing suzerainty over the empire of a former foe. The disintegration of the Soviet Union has prompted the United States to expand its zone of military hegemony into Eastern Europe (through NATO) and into formerly neutral Yugoslavia. And -- most important of all -- the end of the cold war has permitted America to deepen its involvement the Middle East. Even before the war against Iraq transformed the United States into the dominant power of the Persian Gulf, America was laying the groundwork for the third empire by steadily building up its military commitments in the Middle East....The main purpose of NATO countries, for the foreseeable future, will be to serve as staging areas for American wars in the Balkans, the Mediterranean and the Persian Gulf..... Reducing the American military presence there [in East Asia] would free resources needed to bolster the new commitments in the Middle East and the Balkans -- commitments that are likely to endure for a generation, if not longer. Unlike the first two American empires, the third empire cannot be justified as a means of spreading democracy or self-determination. American leaders will always pay lip service to those ideals, as they did in liberating Kuwait from Saddam Hussein. But most of America's clients in the Middle East are authoritarian states like Saudi Arabia, or democracies like Turkey, troubled by the prospect of self-determination to their ethnic minorities.... President Clinton's high-stakes gamble in the Balkans means that the United States can no longer afford to preside over a lax Americana rather than a pax Americana. The challenge of consolidating a new European-Middle Eastern sphere of influence while drawing back from Asia will require the United States to develop new NATO-like institutions and alliances to deal with the various protectorates that it has collected since 1990. Whatever its ultimate contours, our newest empire must be backed up by adequate force if it is to be a going concern. Protectorates must be protected."
Jacob Heilbrunn and Michael Lind

The Third American Empire
New York Times, 2 January 1996

"There were certain forces in the U.S. government who worked with the Turkish paramilitary groups, including Abdullah Çatli’s group, Fethullah Gülen.... ... these [intercepted] conversations, between 1997 and 2001, had to do with a Central Asia operation that involved bin Laden. Not once did anybody use the word 'al-Qaeda.' It was always 'mujahideen,' always 'bin Laden' and, in fact, not 'bin Laden' but 'bin Ladens' plural. There were several bin Ladens who were going on private jets to Azerbaijan and Tajikistan. The Turkish ambassador in Azerbaijan worked with them. There were bin Ladens, with the help of Pakistanis or Saudis, under our management.... bringing people from East Turkestan into Kyrgyzstan, from Kyrgyzstan to Azerbaijan, from Azerbaijan some of them were being channeled to Chechnya, some of them were being channeled to Bosnia. From Turkey, they were putting all these bin Ladens on NATO planes. People and weapons went one way, drugs came back.... A lot of the drugs were going to Belgium with NATO planes. After that, they went to the UK, and a lot came to the U.S. via military planes to distribution centers in Chicago and Paterson, New Jersey. Turkish diplomats who would never be searched were coming with suitcases of heroin."
Sibel Edmonds, former Turkish translator at the FBI on the intercepts she discovered

Who’s Afraid of Sibel Edmonds?
The American Conservative, November 2009

"For years, Saudi Arabia flatly denied it had provided money and logistical support for Islamist militant groups that attacked Western targets. But that assertion is disputed by a former al-Qaeda commander who testified in a United Nations war-crimes trial that his unit was funded by the Saudi High Commission for Relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ali Ahmed Ali Hamad, the former al-Qaeda fighter, gave the same account to The Inquirer in an interview in this struggling city in the central Balkans. 'Because it was the biggest charity, [the commission] helped the mujaheddin the most,' Hamad said, adding that it had provided 'everything a person needed to exist.' Hamad, 37, is expected to be called as a witness in a lawsuit filed by Cozen O'Connor alleging that Saudi Arabia and affiliated charities financed al-Qaeda and other groups as they geared up for the 9/11 attacks. As a convicted terrorist, Hamad is an imperfect witness. During the Balkans war, from 1992 to 1995, jihadists from North Africa and the Middle East were accused of atrocities against indigenous Serbs and Croatians. Hamad admits having done 'bad things' as an al-Qaeda fighter, and he is serving a 10-year sentence in a Bosnian jail for his role in a 1997 Mostar bombing. Yet Hamad's account of his time in the Balkans went largely uncontroverted during the U.N. trial, where he was a prosecution witness. He contends that the Saudi High Commission, an agency of the Saudi government, and other Islamist charities supported al-Qaeda-led units that committed atrocities. Mujaheddin units, he said, recruited fighters, prepared for battle, and financed their operations in the Balkans. He said the Saudi High Commission had poured tens of millions of dollars into mujaheddin units led by al-Qaeda operatives who fought with Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. Money intended for humanitarian relief bought weapons and other military supplies.The charities also provided false identification, employment papers, diplomatic plates and vehicles that permitted Islamist fighters to enter the country and pass easily through military checkpoints, Hamad said. Several charity offices, including those of the Saudi High Commission, were led by former mujaheddin or al-Qaeda members, at least one of whom trained with Hamad in an al-Qaeda camp in Afghanistan, he said. Like other al-Qaeda fighters, Hamad said, he was an employee of the Saudi High Commission for a time and traveled through the war zone in commission vehicles with diplomatic plates."
A former al-Qaeda fighter accuses a Saudi charity
Philadelphia Inquirer, 31 May 2008

"The Balkans´ uncharacteristically silent exit from the world stage as the most prominent international hot spot of the last decade belies its status as a major recruiting and training center of Osama bin Laden´s al Qaeda network. By feeding off the region´s impoverished republics and taking root in the unsettled diplomatic aftermath of the Bosnia and Kosovo conflicts, al Qaeda, along with Iranian Revolutionary Guard-sponsored terrorists, have burrowed their way into Europe´s backyard. For the past 10 years, the most senior leaders of al Qaeda have visited the Balkans, including bin Laden himself on three occasions between 1994 and 1996. The Egyptian surgeon turned terrorist leader Ayman Al-Zawahiri has operated terrorist training camps, weapons of mass destruction factories and money-laundering and drug-trading networks throughout Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Bosnia. This has gone on for a decade. Many recruits to the Balkan wars came originally from Chechnya, a jihad in which Al Qaeda has also played a part. These activities have been exhaustively researched by Yossef Bodansky, the former director of the U.S. House of Representatives´ Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare.... The overnight rise of heroin trafficking through Kosovo -- now the most important Balkan route between Southeast Asia and Europe after Turkey -- helped also to fund terrorist activity directly associated with al Qaeda and the Iranian Revolutionary Guard. Opium poppies, which barely existed in the Balkans before 1995, have become the No. 1 drug cultivated in the Balkans after marijuana. Operatives of two al Qaeda-sponsored Islamist cells who were arrested in Bosnia on Oct. 23 were linked to the heroin trade, underscoring the narco-jihad culture of today´s post-war Balkans.... By early 1998 the U.S. had already entered into its controversial relationship with the KLA to help fight off Serbian oppression of that province. While in February the U.S. gave into KLA demands to remove it from the State Department´s terrorism list, the gesture amounted to little. That summer the CIA and CIA-modernized Albanian intelligence (SHIK) were engaged in one of the largest seizures of Islamic Jihad cells operating in Kosovo. Fearing terrorist reprisal from al Qaeda, the U.S. temporarily closed its embassy in Tirana and a trip to Albania by then Defense Secretary William Cohen was canceled out of fear of an assassination attempt. Meanwhile, Albanian separatism in Kosovo and Metohija was formally characterized as a 'jihad' in October 1998 at an annual international Islamic conference in Pakistan. Nonetheless, the 25,000 strong KLA continued to receive official NATO/U.S. arms and training support and, at the talks in Rambouillet, France, then Secretary of State Madeleine Albright shook hands with 'freedom fighter' Hashim Thaci, a KLA leader. As this was taking place, Europol (the European Police Organization based in The Hague) was preparing a scathing report on the connection between the KLA and international drug gangs. Even Robert Gelbard, America´s special envoy to Bosnia, officially described the KLA as Islamic terrorists. With the future status of Kosovo still in question, the only real development that may be said to be taking place there is the rise of Wahhabi Islam -- the puritanical Saudi variety favored by bin Laden -- and the fastest growing variety of Islam in the Balkans."
Al Qaeda´s Balkan Links

Wall St Journal, 1 November 2001
(European Edition)

"... the Albanian security situation reflects the volatility of the clan-based rivalries and the related narco-trafficking and criminal activities which are linked with global terrorism. But by admitting this as the basis for the need to move [US] facilities out of Albania, the US would then have to admit that this terrorism-related criminal activity, and particularly narco-trafficking, is intrinsically linked into the al-Qaida and Iranian-backed terrorist infrastructure of the region, and into the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which now, under new names, controls the Serbian province of Kosovo.... no-one in the State Department or Defense Department is willing to admit that US support for this terrorist and narco-trafficking base of Albanians in 1999 -- when the US led NATO into attacks on Serbia in order to assist the KLA -- was wrong. This is part of the distortion of US foreign and strategic policy: no-one will admit that they made a mistake. There are many Congressmen on Capitol Hill who understand that this distortion exists with regard to Balkan policy.  But equally, there are politicians in both major parties who supported the KLA during the 1990s, so that today it is impossible for a Republican-controlled Bush White House and Congress to attack the logic and merit of the 1999 war, waged against Serbia by the then-Democratic Party-controlled Clinton White House. It is difficult for the White House, for example, to criticize the 1990s support by the Clinton Administration for the al-Qaida -linked KLA without also opening up to criticism some senior members of the Republican Party..... The fact that the US has been forced to remove its assets from Albania, despite the quiet manner in which this has been undertaken, is just one indication of the ongoing degradation of the situation there. And yet the US still refuses to acknowledge that this is integrally linked with the Albanian-based terrorism underway in the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, or that it is at the very heart of the creation of what is already a criminal sub-state in Kosovo, which is directly under the control of the KLA...."
Special Report; US Policy in the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean: Time to Stop Choosing Sides, and to Start Choosing Strategic Interests
Defense & Foreign Affairs Special Analysis, 13 April  2005

"... the KLA is closely involved with Terrorist organizations motivated by the ideology of radical Islam, including assets of Iran and of the notorious Osama bin-Ladin".
The Kosovo Liberation Army: Does Clinton Policy Support Group with Terror, Drug Ties?
Republican Policy Committee of the US Senate 31 March 1999

"Sky News has obtained evidence of hundreds of radical Islamic Holy warriors hiding in Bosnia, a decade after the end of the war. Tim Marshall went to Zenica in search of answers. He found a growing radicalisation, and a new base for Al Qaeda."
The Hidden Army Of Radical Islam in Bosnia
Sky News, 28 February 2006

"If Senator Kennedy wants to talk about fraud [in relation to the Bush administration's invasion of Iraq], he ought to talk..... about what he and President Clinton told us in 1999 when they told us to bomb innocent Serbs, we'd find 100 thousand mass graves. Those mass graves were never found. They lied to the America people to justify the aerial bombardment campaign."
Congressman Curt Weldon (R) Pennsylvania on 'Hardball with Chris Matthews'
NBC News, 19 September 2003

Press Reports On False Claims Of Genocide By Serbs In Kosovo  - Click Here

"General Sir Michael Rose, the former United Nations military commander in Bosnia.... said false facts about the war in Bosnia were being fed to Congress.... he was visited by General John Galvin, former Supreme Allied Commander Europe who had been appointed by President Clinton to advise on a new structure for the Bosnian Army. General Rose said: 'We were escorted by a woman from the US Embassy who, in my view, was the most hostile American I met during all my time in Bosnia.' As they flew by helicopter towards Tuzla in the north, she pointed at all the destroyed villages high in the Zvijezda mountains and 'exclaimed excitedly' to General Galvin: 'Look at what the criminal Serbs have done.' In fact, General Rose said, they were Bosnian Croat villages ethnically cleansed by the Muslim forces. Later when they visited Mostar in the south where the Croats had virtually destroyed the Muslim sector in the eastern part of the town, the US official 'planted her hands on her ample hips' and cried: 'Well, at least this was done by the criminal Serbs.' General Rose said the woman burst into tears when it was pointed out that the Croats had been to blame. 'The fact was not lost on Galvin,' he said."
US bugged me in Bosnia, says General Rose
London Times, 10 November 1998

"American intelligence agents have admitted they helped to train the Kosovo Liberation Army [KLA] before Nato's bombing of Yugoslavia. The disclosure angered some European diplomats, who said this had undermined moves for a political solution to the conflict between Serbs and Albanians... Several KLA leaders had the mobile phone number of General Wesley Clark, the Nato commander..."
CIA aided Kosovo guerrilla army
Sunday Times , 12 March 2000

"General Wesley Clark, the former Nato commander and presidential hopeful, will testify next month at the war crimes trial of Slobodan Milosevic under conditions of strict censorship and confidentiality imposed by the United States. Washington is believed to be fearful of potentially damaging revelations about its Balkan realpolitik during the 1990s and in the Bosnian War. General Clark, who is seeking the Democratic Party nomination for President, will be one of the highest-profile witnesses to take the stand. The former Nato commander directed the alliance's 78-day bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, after Serbian forces had launched an onslaught against ethnic Albanian separatists. General Clark will testify on December 15 and 16. Public galleries will be closed and the broadcast system that transmits the proceedings on the internet and on closed-circuit television will be shut down. The conditions of General Clark's testimony include a 48-hour delay to enable the US Government to review the transcript and seek the court's consent to censor parts on the ground of national security. Two US representatives will attend the sessions. The three-judge panel hearing Mr Milosevic's case agreed to the conditions, which are unique, because they decided that they were justified by the potential importance of General Clark's testimony, Jim Landale, the tribunal spokesman, said. In his cross-examination of General Clark, Mr Milosevic could reveal sensitive information about the West's diplomatic and military strategy for dealing with the crisis in the Balkans."
General Clark to testify against Milosevic
London Times, 20 November 2003

"The retired General who had been refusing to declare himself a Democrat or Republican is now declaring himself a Democratic presidential candidate. But more important than his party affiliation is Wesley Clark's bizarre view on how to fight terrorism. The media refer to Clark's impressive military credentials but they fail to note that his main accomplishment under President Clinton was presiding over the establishment of a base for radical Islamic terrorism, including Osama bin Laden, in Kosovo... Clark, who has been making headlines by claiming that the U.S. decision to go to war in Iraq was a misjudgment based on scanty evidence, ran Clinton's NATO war against Yugoslavia on behalf of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). The House of Representatives failed to authorize the war under the War Powers Act, making it illegal. Thousands of innocent people in Serbia, Yugoslavia's main province, were killed to stop an alleged 'genocide' by Yugoslavia that was not in fact taking place. Investigations determined that a couple thousand had died in the civil war there.... The 1998 State Department human rights report had described the KLA as a group that tortured and abducted people and made others 'disappear.' Yet a photograph was taken of Clark and [KLA leader] Thaki with their hands together in a gesture of solidarity. The KLA's ties to Osama bin Laden were also well-known and reported.... Another Democratic presidential candidate, Rep. Dennis Kucinich, has tried to prohibit funding for the Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC), the successor to the KLA now being protected by U.N. troops as a result of the outcome of the conflict. Kucinich said an internal United Nations Report found the KPC responsible for violence, extortion, murder and torture.... Clark's presidential decision suggests that he believes the media will not ask him about supporting the same extremist Muslim forces in Kosovo that militarily attacked us on 9/11. He's right: during interviews on ABC's Good Morning America and the NBC Today show on September 17, the subject didn't come up. "
Wesley Clark's Ties To Muslim Terrorists
Accuracy in Media, 17 September 2003

"I read the latest reports concerning a recent Executive Order that hands the CIA a black bag in the Balkans for engineering a military coup in Serbia, for interrupting communications, for tampering with bank accounts, freezing assets abroad and training the Kosovo Liberation Army in terrorist tactics, such as how to blow up buildings. How this is intended to help establish a democracy in Serbia or Kosovo hasn't been explained. Nor has the failure to substantially demilitarize the KLA been explained. Nor has the reverse ethnic cleansing taking place in Kosovo by the KLA while NATO rules the province been explained."
Democrat Congressman Dennis Kucinich, Ohio
The Progressive, Vol 63, No.8, August 1999

"...the Albanian security situation reflects the volatility of the clan-based rivalries and the related narco-trafficking and criminal activities which are linked with global terrorism. But by admitting this as the basis for the need to move facilities out of Albania, the US would then have to admit that this terrorism-related criminal activity, and particularly narco-trafficking, is intrinsically linked into the al-Qaida and Iranian-backed terrorist infrastructure of the region, and into the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), which now, under new names, controls the Serbian province of Kosovo. Significantly part of the trade-off which Washington made with Skopje was that Skopje backed-off from its vociferous claims about the ethnic-Albanian National Liberation Army (NLA) which has been attempting to break up the former Yugoslav area of Macedonia The NLA is a re-emerged part of the KLA; it is linked with al-Qaida, and with the Iranian terrorist infrastructure in Bosnia-Herzegovina, Raska in Southern Serbia, and in Serbia'S Kosovo area. The irony of this begins to emerge. The US rewards Skopje for stopping expressions of concern about Albanian terrorism which is also the cause of the US having to move its assets out of Albania itself. Why is this? Because no-one in the State Department or Defense Department is willing to admit that US support for this terrorist and narcotrafficking base of Albanians in 1999 - when the US led NATO into attacks on Serbia in order to assist the KLA - was wrong. This is part of the distortion of US foreign and strategic policy: no-one will admit that they made a mistake. There are many Congressmen on Capitol Hill who understand that this distortion exists with regard to Balkan policy. But equally, there are politicians in both major parties who supported the KLA during the 1990s, so that today it is impossible for a Republican controlled Bush White House and Congress to attack the logic and merit of the 1999 war, waged against Serbia by the then-Democratic Party-controlled Clinton White House. It is difficult for the White House, for example, to criticize the 1990s support by the Clinton Administration for the al-Qaida-linked KLA without also opening up to criticism some senior members of the Republican Party..... The State and Defense departments, and the CIA, have been constantly warned about the narco-trafficking and terrorism links in the Balkans, but have swept this aside. The State Department, despite having been presented with concrete intelligence about the activities of narcotraffickers and terrorists in Bosnia-Herzegovina, and in southern Serbia, Macedonia, and the like, has, nonetheless decided to say that there is no terrorism activity related to these areas.... by falling to acknowledge the changed strategic contextual realities and the changes and cracks within the Turkish system, the US reliance n Turkey, and its support for Turkey, become meaningless. and have damaging regional effects, including sustaining the logistical framework of the Islamist terrorist movements, even those which are against Turkey's own long-term interests. There has been strong Turkish involvement in supporting Balkan narcotraffickers and terrorist groups, perhaps unofficially, but certainly with considerable effect. There has been no re-evaluation despite an of this, and despite the proven links between Bosnian terrorism cells and the 9111 attackers and even to the Madrid bombers. It would. be a mistake to think that this problem will go away, or that the war on terrorism has successfully moved the tide against the terrorism and narco-trafficking infrastructure in the Balkans. The fact that the US has been forced to remove its assets from Albania, despite the quiet manner in which this has been undertaken, is just one indication of the ongoing degradation of the situation there. And yet the US still refuses to acknowledge that this is integrally linked with the Albanian-based terrorism underway in the former Yugoslav republic of Macedonia, or that it is at the very heart of the creation of what is already a criminal sub-state in Kosovo, which is directly under the control of the KLA. The fact that the KLA leader and. until March 8, 2005, Prime Minister of Kosovo, Ramush (Hilmi) Haradinaj, was indicted for war crimes and taken to The Hague for trial still has not penetrated the consciousness of what is transpiring. Moreover, in order to somewhat ease the embarrassment of having backed the wrong side - the side of alQaida the narco-traffickers, the true genocidal xenophobists, and the criminal gangs in Kosovo, the US is in some ways actively working to let Mr Haradinaj out of prison, so that he can ' fight his legal battle from a position of freedom'. This is a man charged with having directly and personally killed many innocent people, not a politician who allegedly allowed things to happen by default. The scandal of this particular case has yet to break, but suffice it to say that Albanian mafia linked 10 the KLA have worked through former US Assistant Secretary of State Richard Holbrooke - a close associate of the KLA and a beneficiary of its support - to approach the US President of the International Criminal Tribunal on the former Yugoslavia ({CTY), Theodore Meron to see Haradinai released. There are reports from within the ICTY that the State Department would approve the release of Haradinaj, and had, in fact, agreed with. Haradinaj in advance of his surrender to the ICTY, that a deal would be struck to ensure that he did not serve prison time for the charges be faced.... So in order to refuse to correct mistakes, or even acknowledge them, there are many officials within the US bureaucracy who have allowed themselves to be drawn into what has become almost a circus of foreign policy juggling which - even by the kindest interpretation - fails to help the US, the region in question, or the cause of US ethical leadership and credibility. This will result in more war, more instability, more narcotics on European and US streets, more instability in South-Eastern Europe and the Eastern Mediterranean. And ultimately it will cost the US the respect and loyalty of those allies it has in the region and elsewhere. But dearly that's more important than admitting that mistakes were made, and need correction."
Gregory .R. Copley, President, the international Strategic Studies Association
US Policy in the Balkans and the Eastern Mediterranean: Time to Stop Choosing Sides, and to Start Choosing Strategic Interests
Presented at the Capitol Hill Conference on FYROM: The Need for Reassessment of us Policy in the Balkans, 14 April 2005

"In the hours before the release of the three German spies from Kosovo on November 28, nerves in Berlin were taught. That day, security circles hardly believed anymore that the BND agents would be released by evening. ... According to information obtained by the Welt am Sonntag, the German government has since Friday been seriously considering freezing aid it has already promised to Kosovo. A final decision has not been made. Nonetheless, concrete speculations have been made about cutting aid in specific areas, according to the information. The main area under consideration is defense. Such a step would certainly hurt Kosovo, given that Germany is the second largest bilateral donor country after the United States. Since 1999, Germany has given 280 million euros to the Kosovo authorities. Given his actions in the BND affair, Prime Minister Thaci will have to deal with such consequences. But why did he choose to pick this fight with Germany in the first place? In security circles one hears various answers to this question. The most common one is that the action was taken as revenge. The reason is a 67-page long, hard-hitting analysis by the BND about organized crime in Kosovo and a confidential report contracted by the German military, the Bundeswehr. In contrast to the CIA and MI6, both German intelligence reports accuse Thaci as well as former Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj and Xhavit Haliti of the parliamentary leadership of far-reaching involvement in organized crime. The BND writes: 'The key players (including Haliti, Haradinaj, and Thaci) are intimately involved in inter-linkages between politics, business, and organized crime structures in Kosovo.' At the end of the 1990s, the report accuses Thaci of leading a 'criminal network operating throughout Kosovo.' At that time he was a co-founder of the Kosovo Liberation Army, and led the Albanian delegation at the 1999 conference at Rambouillet that preceded the Kosovo war. The BND report also accuses Thaci of contacts to the Czech and Albanian mafias. In addition, it accuses him, together with Haliti, of ordering killings through the professional hit man 'Afrimi’, who is allegedly responsible for at least 11 contract murders. Concerning Haradinaj, like Thaci seen as a protégé of the United States, the BND report says he was involved 'in the full spectrum of criminal, political and military activities.'
German spy affair might have been revenge
Die Welt, 30 November 2008


'As You Sow So Shall You Reap'
NATO Sided With Jihadists In Yugoslavia Who Later Conducted 9/11 And 7/7 Attacks

"The War on Terror suffered a major blow three years before it was ever announced. It happened when the people of this democracy [in America] were misled into attacking the sovereign, emerging post-Communist democracy of Yugoslavia - over rumors of genocide and ethnic cleansing that proved false.  In so doing, we put the final touch on delivering the Balkans to al Qaeda. Today we are being asked to seal that historical blunder, whose repercussions seven years later are only escalating as those we 'rescued' turn their weapons against UN and NATO forces. While NATO spends most of its time rooting out terror cells in Kosovo and Bosnia—which served as the logistics bases for the London and Madrid bombings--the 2006 deadline to complete our eagerly forgotten debacle and determine the province’s final status is fast approaching.... [Deputy commander of the Kosovo Liberation Army Niam Behljulji, known as Hulji], according to the December issue of the Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy journal, is the man who supplied the Semtex-like explosives used in the London and Madrid attacks.  But to perpetuate the version of events we were sold from the beginning, all these connections have gone purposefully unmade by our nation’s 'journalists,' who were gung-ho supporters of our 1999 offensive against a historical ally and the culmination of our pro-terror policies in 1990s Yugoslavia.... Only Britain's Sky News has caught on, in December airing a segment entitled 'The Hidden Army of Radical Islam,' about Bosnia, where there is 'growing radicalization' and a base for Al Qaeda:  'In the heart of Europe, thousands of Arab fighters. Zenica [Bosnia], 1995. They come to wage holy war in support of the Bosnian Army. [Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic shown welcoming the mujahadeen.] ...They committed many atrocities; the tapes Sky News has obtained include beheadings and signs of torture. …This isn’t just about history; it's about now. Western intelligence agencies are now pressing the Bosnians to look into exactly where these people are and what they are doing, and asking have any of these men been in contact with the three young Bosnian Muslims arrested last month on terrorism charges. ...In Sarajevo now the influence of Saudi ideas can be found all over the city. ...Radical Islam is attempting to plant deep roots in the community. …The seeds for change were planted back in 1995.'... The narration continues: 'There were some serious players sent to Bosnia, among them the man who planned 9/11, Khalid Sheikh Mohamed...'  A similar picture began to emerge in Kosovo, where the late Wall St. Journal reporter Daniel Pearl was uncovering that 'Ethnic-Albanian militants, humanitarian organizations, NATO and the news media fed off each other to give genocide rumors credibility.' The anti-Serb propaganda which misled Americans throughout  the 90s and which Daniel Pearl was debunking continues to guide our perceptions and foreign policy in the Balkans today. But despite the media’s blackout on the subject of Balkans terror--including by Pearl's own Wall St. Journal--more and more Americans have been scratching their heads, wondering why we forcibly precluded the Serbs from doing in their own backyard what we’ve gone halfway around the globe to do.... For the past four years, the Hague's International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia has been finding what multiple international forensic teams have found--that claims of Serb 'atrocities' were exaggerated and often invented. It turns out we confused an attempt to create an Islamic 'Greater Albania' with one to create a 'Greater Serbia.' Surely if the latter were Slobodan Milosevic’s goal, he would have started by ethnically cleansing the nearly 300,000 Muslims of Serbia. Though he built his career in whatever dirty ways Tito's Yugoslavia allowed, he was the least of the Balkans' villains. For most Serbs, he was not a hero until he was called upon to defend an entire nation at the Hague. Now that Milosevic is dead, we are spared the worldwide riots that would have ensued had the tribunal mustered the courage to issue a verdict based on the evidence. And we can all sleep comfortably as the disproved charges are accepted as history.... In early 2001, German TV broadcast a report titled 'It Began with a Lie,' which publicized the findings of the observer force Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)  that no genocide had taken place in Kosovo. The revelations set off a huge public debate in Germany, a member of the NATO coalition, after the public realized their country had been party to a hoax, and they held the responsible politicians’ feet to the fire. It’s long past time that we also set the record straight on what we 'achieved' in the Balkans -- and change course. As the world closes in on the Serbs again this year, we must stop bin Laden from establishing a terror state in Europe. We know from Madrid and London that we’ll pay for it with our own blood. In fact, we already have."
A Balkan Base For Al Qaeda?
FrontPageMagazine, 20 March 2006

"During an interview on Fox TV this summer, the former US federal prosecutor John Loftus reported that British intelligence had used the al-Muhajiroun group in London to recruit Islamist militants with British passports for the war against the Serbs in Kosovo. Since July Scotland Yard has been interested in an alleged member of al-Muhajiroun, Haroon Rashid Aswat, who some sources have suggested could have been behind the London bombings [7/7]. According to Loftus, Aswat was detained in Pakistan after leaving Britain, but was released after 24 hours. He was subsequently returned to Britain from Zambia, but has been detained solely for extradition to the US, not for questioning about the London bombings. Loftus claimed that Aswat is a British-backed double agent, pursued by the police but protected by MI6. One British Muslim of Pakistani origin radicalised by the civil war in Yugoslavia was LSE-educated Omar Saeed Sheikh..... This is all the more remarkable when this is the same Omar Sheikh who, at the behest of General Mahmood Ahmed, head of the ISI, wired $100,000 to Mohammed Atta, the leading 9/11 hijacker, before the New York attacks, as confirmed by Dennis Lormel, director of FBI's financial crimes unit. Yet neither Ahmed nor Omar appears to have been sought for questioning by the US about 9/11."
Michael Meacher, former UK Environment Minister
Britain now faces its own blowback
Guardian, 10 September 2005

Omar Sheikh And British Covert Terrorist Operations In The Balkans

"The London School of Economics, known for its far-Left radicalism in the 1960s, has been host to at least three al-Qa'eda-linked terrorists, The Telegraph has been told. The three - including one man called Ahmed Omar Sheikh - have been revealed as having links with the LSE in an intelligence file seen by this newspaper and now being studied by police....  Omar Sheikh... has... been named as one of the key financiers of Mohammed Atta,  the pilot of one of the jets that hit the World Trade Centre on September 11."
Al-Qa'eda terror trio linked to London School of 'Extremists'
Daily Telegraph, 27 January 2002

"Pakistani intelligence chiefs are concerned that General Musharraf may jeopardise their relationship with British intelligence agencies after claiming that a convicted terrorist was once an MI6 informer. The President outlines the role played by a former London public schoolboy, Omar Sheikh, in the kidnap and murder of Daniel Pearl, the Wall Street Journal reporter, in February 2002. General Musharraf says that Sheikh, who orchestrated the abduction, was recruited by MI6 while he was studying at the London School of Economics and sent to the Balkans to take part in jihad operations there. He alleges that Sheikh later double-crossed British intelligence. 'At some point he probably became a rogue or double agent,' General Musharraf says."
'America paid us to hand over al-Qaeda suspects'
London Times, 25 September 2006

"Omar Sheikh is a British national born to Pakistani parents in London on December 23, 1973. His early education was in the United Kingdom, although he also spent four years at Lahore’s prestigious Aitchison College. He then went to the London School of Economics (LSE) but dropped out before graduation. It is believed in some quarters that while Omar Sheikh was at the LSE he was recruited by the British intelligence agency MI6. It is said that MI6 persuaded him to take an active part in demonstrations against Serbian aggression in Bosnia and even sent him to Kosovo to join the jihad. At some point he probably became a rogue or double agent."
President Purvez Musharraf of Pakistan
How we found Pearl buried in ten pieces
London Times, 26 September 2006

Omar Sheikh, 9/11, And The Balkans - Click Here


Full Archive Of Press And Other Reports
NATO Backed Islamic Terrorism In The Balkans

NATO Backed Islamic Terrorism in the Balkans
Press Reports

1. Oil and US Geopolitical Objectives in the Balkans

Click here

2. US backed terrorism in Croatia

Click here

3. US backed terrorism in Bosnia

Click here

4. US backed terrorism in Kosovo

Click here

5. US backed terrorism in Macedonia

Click here

6. The human cost of US backed terrorism in the Balkans

Click here
American Sponsored Islamic Jihad In Yugoslavia
Article by former British government Minister, Michael Meacher -
Click Here
 
Post 911 - Some Habits Die Hard
"The Pentagon is considering a massive covert action program to overthrow Iran's ruling ayatollahs... The proposal, sources say, includes ... backing armed Iranian dissidents and employing the services of the Mujahedeen e Khalq, a group currently branded as terrorist by the United States..."
The Iran Debate
ABC News, 29 May 2003

"The People’s Mujahidin is seen by Washington as a possible instrument for 'regime change' in Tehran....The Marxist movement, which initially supported the Islamic revolution and then broke with the fundamentalist regime, was formally designated last year as 'terrorist' by the State Department and the EU but it is known to have links with the CIA and other US agencies."
France rounds up US-linked Iranian exiles
London Times, 16 June 2003

"The UK Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) was also aware of the American secret arms supplies to the ABiH [the Bosnian Muslim Army]. According to a British intelligence official, the DIS never made an issue of them, so as not to further damage the sensitive relationship with the US services. An internal DIS analysis concluded that the arms were delivered via 'a different network', and that the entire operation was probably led by the NSC [National Security Council].....  the DIS received a direct order from the British government not to investigate this affair. This was not permitted for the simple reason that the matter was too sensitive in the framework of American-British relations. The DIS also obtained intelligence on the secret supplies to the ABiH from the German military intelligence service and the Bundesnachrichtendienst, because some of the flights departed from Frankfurt. However, no American-German alliance existed in the matter of clandestine support to the ABiH."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 – 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions

Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002


1. Oil and US Geopolitical Objectives in the Balkans

"The goal in Kosovo was to limit Serbia's geographic influence and to ignite a chain of events that would lead to Milosevic's ouster. Those goals were achieved: Milosevic was forced from power in the fall of 2000, largely because of a chain of events stemming from that war. His ouster, as I wrote in The New York Times on Oct. 6, 2000, meant the de facto death of the last ruling Communist Party in Europe, even if in its final years it had adopted national-fascism as a tactic."
Robert D. Kaplan - Syria and the Limits of Comparison
Stratfor, 28 August 2013

"Twenty years ago, the United States had little interest in relations with Russia, and certainly not with resetting them. The Soviet Union had collapsed, the Russian Federation was in ruins and it was not taken seriously by the United States -- or anywhere else for that matter. The Russians recall this period with bitterness. In their view, under the guise of teaching the Russians how to create a constitutional democracy and fostering human rights, the United States and Europe had engaged in exploitative business practices and supported non-governmental organizations that wanted to destabilize Russia. The breaking point came during the Kosovo crisis. Slobodan Milosevic, leader of what was left of Yugoslavia, was a Russian ally. Russia had a historic relationship with Serbia, and it did not want to see Serbia dismembered, with Kosovo made independent. There were three reasons for this. First, the Russians denied that there was a massacre of Albanians in Kosovo. There had been a massacre by Serbians in Bosnia; the evidence of a massacre in Kosovo was not clear and is still far from clear. Second, the Russians did not want European borders to change. There had been a general agreement that forced changes in borders should not happen in Europe, given its history, and the Russians were concerned that restive parts of the Russian Federation, from Chechnya to Karelia to Pacific Russia, might use the forced separation of Serbia and Kosovo as a precedent for dismembering Russia. In fact, they suspected that was the point of Kosovo. Third, and most important, they felt that an attack without U.N. approval and without Russian support should not be undertaken both under international law and out of respect for Russia. President Bill Clinton and some NATO allies went to war nevertheless.... When many former Soviet countries experienced revolutions in the 1990s that created governments that were somewhat more democratic but certainly more pro-Western and pro-American, Russia saw the West closing in. The turning point came in Ukraine, where the Orange Revolution generated what seemed to Putin a pro-Western government in 2004. Ukraine was the one country that, if it joined NATO, would make Russia indefensible and would control many of its pipelines to Europe. In Putin's view, the non-governmental organizations helped engineer this, and he claimed that U.S. and British intelligence services funded those organizations. To Putin, the actions in Ukraine indicated that the United States in particular was committed to extending the collapse of the Soviet Union to a collapse of the Russian Federation. Kosovo was an insult from his point of view. The Orange Revolution was an attack on basic Russian interests."
Syria, America and Putin's Bluff
Stratfor, 10 September 2013

"Last month, the German ARD television network broadcast a report entitled, 'It All Began With a Lie.' The main thesis of the program, which was first aired on February 8 and then rebroadcast on February 19, was that high officials of the German ruling SPD-Green coalition used fabrications and manipulation of facts in order to counter the growing public opposition of the NATO bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999. The report was damning enough to be the subject of a German Bundestag debate on February 16, and current Defense Minister Rudolf Scharping and Foreign Minister Joschka Fischer were especially taken to task for having misled the German public into believing that Yugoslav forces were committing 'genocide' against the Kosovo Albanians and that the only reason that NATO was intervening was out of  'humanitarian' grounds. Perhaps even more fascinating than the said ministers’ exposed falsehoods was a statement made by a German political figure during a live debate following the report’s second airing. Willy Wimmer, a defense policy official with the opposition Christian Democratic Union recalled a defense policy conference he had attended in Bratislava after the bombing and the strikingly direct explanation for NATO’s intervention given by an American defense spokesman at the conference. The spokesman said: 'We waged that war because we have to undo the strategic mistake Eisenhower made in 1943-44.' What was that mistake? During this critical period, the Allies made the fatal-for-the-Balkans decision to withdraw their support from the only truly Western-oriented military resistance movement on the territory of German-occupied Yugoslavia, the overwhelmingly Serb Yugoslav Army in the Homeland, led by General Draza Mihailovic, who had made the cover of Time magazine in 1941 as 'Europe’s First Guerilla.' Instead, the Allies threw their support (and arms and propaganda aid) to the communist Partisan movement, led by subsequent Yugoslav dictator, Josip Broz, better known as Tito. Years later, it turned out that the Allies had been misled by Soviet intelligence moles within their own ranks (specifically, within British Intelligence), including the infamous Kim Philby, into thinking that the Partisans were doing the fighting against the Germans, while Mihailovic’s forces were 'collaborating.' Actually, it had been the other way around, but the disinformation accomplished its task. The well-armed communist forces combined with the oncoming Red Army and Yugoslavia was lost for the West. Mihailovic was hunted down by Tito’s forces and, after a show-trial proving his 'treason,' executed in July 1946, despite strong objections from many Western governments. The fact that President Truman awarded him a posthumous medal was little consolation both for Mihailovic and the Serb nation that, despite being the first to rise in the name of freedom, had fallen under communist slavery. All this is very important for understanding the dynamic of U.S. actions in the Balkans in the 1990s and the implications of those actions today. During the post-World War II period, while Yugoslavia was lost to the West as a democratic country, it did come to serve a useful purpose as a buffer between the Iron Curtain and Western Europe, thanks to Tito’s subsequent rupture with Stalin. This was all very useful until the arrival of Gorbachev and the crumbling of the Berlin Wall that soon followed. Yugoslavia had lost its purpose and could be done away with, at least as a communist entity. Thus, then-U.S. Ambassador to Yugoslavia, Warren Zimmerman, could openly state in a January 1992 interview given to the Croatian newspaper Danas: 'We are aiming for a dissolution of Yugoslavia into independent states peacefully.' Nine years of bloody war later, we have seen just how 'peaceful' this dissolution has been. And, of course, it is to be wondered just how such a statement has escaped the attention of all the newfangled globalist international law 'experts' who are currently howling for the arrest of 'war crimes' suspects and their extradition to the Hague Tribunal. For the Ambassador’s statement was a call for a direct violation of the 1975 Helsinki Accords, which guaranteed the integrity of international borders.... Now, it is fair to say that the U.S. did not lead the process of Yugoslavia’s dissolution. The main actor in this process was the newly reunified Germany — which practically blackmailed the rest of Western Europe into recognizing the breakaway republics of Slovenia and Croatia — in return for accepting the Maastricht Treaty that has led the looser European Community into becoming the ever-more tightly knit European Union. Still, Germany was hoping to extend its influence by forming new client states. However, the EU was unable to extinguish the fire the Germans had started and the wars of succession dragged on and took more and more lives. The U.S. stepped fully into the picture, bombed the Bosnian Serbs in 1994 and 1995 in order to strike some sort of a balance in Bosnia, and forged the Dayton Accords of December 1995, which were supposed to end the Yugoslav conflict. The U.S. has been in the driver’s seat in the Balkans ever since, but peace has not arrived. Five-and-a-half years after the Dayton 'peace,' under the noses of a 40,000+ NATO force in Kosovo, a new war is threatening to break out. As for Bosnia, it is a clinically dead state held together only by the almost-dictatorial powers of its High Commissioner and the NATO forces on the ground."
Lies and mysteries revealed
WorldNetDaily, 10 March 2001

"A blizzard of platitudes has been unleashed by Europe's leaders this week as Serbia formally applies for EU membership. No opportunity to declare the occasion 'historic' or to assert that Serbia has a European 'vocation' is being passed up. Yet once these asinine buzzwords have been uttered, there will be no reason to rejoice. Belgrade's treatment by some EU governments has long been characterised by a brazen hypocrisy. Until the beginning of this month, the Netherlands was blocking Serbia's efforts to strengthen its relations with the union over suspicions it was not co-operating fully with the war crimes tribunal in the Hague. The zeal of Maxime Verhagen, the Dutch foreign minister, in insisting on accountability for offences against humanity would be praiseworthy if it was consistent with his approach to other conflicts. How odd it is, then, that Verhagen has vigorously opposed efforts to probe (never mind prosecute) alleged Israeli war crimes in Gaza. With just two of the men on its wanted list – Ratko Mladic and Goran Hadzic – still at large, isn't it time that the Hague tribunal was given a fresh mandate, or even better that an entirely new investigative body is set up? This body should be tasked with finally unearthing the truth about why Nato bombed Serbia in 1999. None of the alliance's personnel has yet been charged by an international tribunal with crimes relating to that war, even though it was conducted with the use of cluster bombs, weapons that literally slice the limbs of their victims. Nor should it be forgotten that the war lacked UN approval and helped usher in the dubious concept of 'humanitarian intervention', under which military action can be taken on the flimsiest of pretexts. I'm sure that I will soon hear or read some federalist (or should I say fantasist?) trying to wax lyrical about the significance of Serbia embracing countries that were attacking it little over a decade ago. What the fantasists won't acknowledge, though, is that Slobodan Milosevic, Serbia's then president, didn't earn his status as a favourite bogeyman of the west purely because he did dreadful things to the ethnic Albanians of Kosovo, as the official narrative would have us believe. The west could probably have tolerated his autocratic streak if he was more favourable to its pervading ideology. But Milosevic's refusal to accept the neoliberal precepts on which the global economy is being run seem to offer a more plausible explanation as to why Bill Clinton and his then cronies in Europe insisted he must go. Such a conclusion seems to me inescapable when you examine the fine print of what the EU and America have been pressing Serbia to do over the past 10 years. Privatising state-owned industry is now a standard condition of EU accession, as many countries in central and eastern Europe have discovered, often at enormous social cost. But what makes Serbia unique is that many of the facilities it has been required to sell off were first damaged by Nato bombs, with the result that western firms could snatch some of them up at bargain basement prices. More than 1,800 privatisations have occurred since Milosevic was ousted; much of the country's metal industry is now in the hands of US Steel, which has been busy shedding jobs, while the national car company Zastava has been bought by Fiat."
David Cronin - Grim reality of Serbia's EU 'dream'
Guardian, 'Comment Is Free', 22 December 2009

"The terms of the Rambouillet Accords demonstrated a reluctance to achieve a negotiated peace settlement acceptable to all sides. As ex-secretary of state Henry Kissinger insisted, 'the Rambouillet text, which called on Serbia to admit Nato troops throughout Yugoslavia, was a provocation, an excuse to start bombing'....Though justified by apparently humanitarian considerations, Nato's bombing of Serbia succeeded only in escalating the Kosovo crisis into a full-scale humanitarian catastrophe. It is now widely acknowledged that the bulk of the ethnic cleansing and war crimes occurred after the start of Nato's campaign, with an OSCE inquiry highlighting 'the patterns of the expulsions and the vast increase in lootings, killings, rape, kidnappings and pillage once the Nato air war began on March 24'.....though these much-vaunted humanitarian objectives were used to build widespread public support for Nato's intervention, Strobe Talbott, the former US deputy secretary of state, has written how 'it was Yugoslavia's resistance to the broader trends of political and economic reform – not the plight of the Kosovar Albanians – that best explains Nato's war'. Placing outwardly humanitarian or security-related motives at the service of political and economic objectives has done much to undermine the emerging notion of the 'responsibility to protect' by breeding scepticism about the ultimate goal of such intervention....Pre-intervention portrayals of the conflict in Kosovo were not, however, a failure of intelligence, but an act of willing deceit; designed to reduce the conflict to terms that betrayed the complexity of a situation involving a previously designated terrorist organisation, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), and a heavy-handed state security infrastructure which had been for decades contending with ethnically-motivated crimes in Kosovo. Detailed reports by Amnesty International suggesting that the death toll was in the hundreds did little to deter talk of an on-going genocide. The media and NGOs, meanwhile, did little to challenge Tony Blair's portrayal of the war as 'a battle between good and evil; between civilisation and barbarity; between democracy and dictatorship'....In bypassing the United Nations, engaging in disingenuous negotiations that precluded diplomatic solutions and manipulating the public case for war, Nato's intervention over Kosovo in 1999 was an important precursor to the invasion of Iraq in 2003."
Serbia's anniversary is a timely reminder
Guardian, Comment Is Free, 24 March 2009

"The trigger for the US-led bombing of Yugoslavia in 1999 was, according to the standard western version of history, the failure of the Serbian delegation to sign up to the Rambouillet peace agreement. But that holds little more water than the tale that has Iraq responsible for last year's invasion by not cooperating with weapons inspectors. The secret annexe B of the Rambouillet accord - which provided for the military occupation of the whole of Yugoslavia - was, as the Foreign Office minister Lord Gilbert later conceded to the defence select committee, deliberately inserted to provoke rejection by Belgrade. But equally revealing about the west's wider motives is chapter four, which dealt exclusively with the Kosovan economy. Article I (1) called for a 'free-market economy', and article II (1) for privatisation of all government-owned assets. At the time, the rump Yugoslavia - then not a member of the IMF, the World Bank, the WTO or European Bank for Reconstruction and Development - was the last economy in central-southern Europe to be uncolonised by western capital. 'Socially owned enterprises', the form of worker self-management pioneered under Tito, still predominated. Yugoslavia had publicly owned petroleum, mining, car and tobacco industries, and 75% of industry was state or socially owned. In 1997, a privatisation law had stipulated that in sell-offs, at least 60% of shares had to be allocated to a company's workers. The high priests of neo-liberalism were not happy. At the Davos summit early in 1999, Tony Blair berated Belgrade, not for its handling of Kosovo, but for its failure to embark on a programme of 'economic reform' - new-world-order speak for selling state assets and running the economy in the interests of multinationals. In the 1999 Nato bombing campaign, it was state-owned companies - rather than military sites - that were specifically targeted by the world's richest nations. Nato only destroyed 14 tanks, but 372 industrial facilities were hit - including the Zastava car plant at Kragujevac, leaving hundreds of thousands jobless. Not one foreign or privately owned factory was bombed. After the removal of Slobodan Milosevic, the west got the 'fast-track' reforming government in Belgrade it had long desired. One of the first steps of the new administration was to repeal the 1997 privatisation law and allow 70% of a company to be sold to foreign investors - with just 15% reserved for workers. The government then signed up to the World Bank's programmes - effectively ending the country's financial independence."
The Spoils of Another War
Guardian, 21 September 2004

"The US goal was to assist the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). Yet the year before, the US state department had branded the KLA a terrorist organisation, financing its operations from the heroin trade and funds from Islamic countries and individuals, including Osama bin Laden. As James Bissett, the former Canadian ambassador to Yugoslavia, has subsequently reported: 'This did not stop the US from arming and training KLA members in Albania and sending them back into Kosovo to assassinate Serbian mayors, ambush Serbian policemen and intimidate hesitant Kosovo Albanians ... Despite a UN arms embargo, and with the support of the US, arms, ammunition and thousands of fighters were smuggled into Bosnia to help the Muslims ... Bin Laden and his network were also active in Kosovo, and KLA members trained in his camps in Afghanistan and Albania.' According to reports in April 1999, assistance was also provided by Britain's SAS. Through much of the 1990s, US support for Islamic militants in former Yugoslavia was backed up by covert US airdrops of arms, especially at Tuzla in northern Bosnia. These took place in the face of Operation Deny Flight, the UN-imposed and Nato-policed no-fly zone over Bosnia. The US House of Representatives also failed to authorise the war under the War Powers Act, making it illegal (shades of Iraq). But the airdrops were only the tip of the iceberg. Retired US officers heading Military Professional Resources Inc, a private paramilitary firm based in Virginia, planned the bloody Croatian 'liberation' of the Serb-held Krajina enclave, which resulted in the ethnic cleansing of 200,000 Serbs.   US goals in the use of the KLA as a proxy force, similar to the funding of the Contras against the leftwing Sandinista government in Nicaragua in the 1980s, were partly to remove Milosevic and break up Yugoslavia as one of the remaining Communist regimes. But related motives were to break Russia's monopoly over oil and gas transport routes and secure pro-western governments in the strategic Black Sea-Caspian Sea oil-rich basin. A crucial oil corridor, called the Trans-Balkan pipeline, designed to become the main route to the west for oil and gas extracted in central Asia, was to run from the Black Sea to the Adriatic via Bulgaria, Macedonia near the border with Kosovo, and Albania. Another was to run across Serbia to Adriatic ports in Croatia and Italy, fed by a pipeline running from a Black Sea port in Romania. The implications of this are stark."
Michael Meacher, former UK Environment Minister

The path to friendship goes via the oil and gas fields
Guardian, 27 March 2004

"A new and potentially explosive Great Game is being set up and few in Britain are aware of it. There are many players: far more than the two - Russia and Britain - who were engaged a century ago in imperial rivalry in central Asia and the north-west frontier. And the object this time is not so much control of territory. It is the large reserves of oil and gas in the Caucasus, notably the Caspian basin. Pipelines are the counters in this new Great Game. There are plans for pipe-lines through Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkey, Iran, Bulgaria, Macedonia - and Albania. Traditional rivalries between east and west are complicated by other threats - from Chechen separatists, Kurds, Albanian guerrilla groups, the dispute between Azerbaijan and Armenia over Nagorno-Karabakh and, throughout the region, Islamic groups whose activities are causing deep concern to Moscow, Tehran and Washington alike. 'In addition to instability and conflict in the Caucasus and parts of central Asia, there is a longer-term fear that Russia may rebuild its military capabilities, perhaps under a strongly nationalist regime,' notes Paul Rogers, professor of peace studies at Bradford University, in his recent book, Losing Control. Such a fear he adds, 'rarely recognises the significance of a near-endemic Russian perception that Nato expansion and US commercial interests in the Caspian basin are part of a strategic encroachment into Russia's historic sphere of influence'. This is the region both west and east have their eyes on. It is rich in untapped oil and gas while US reserves are running down, China is desperate for more oil, and no one outside the Gulf wants to rely on Saudi Arabia, Kuwait or Iraq - which have the biggest oil reserves. Oil is the bait as the US, Russia, Turkey, Iran - and Nato - jockey for alliances, power and influence in this highly combustible but, for most people, little-known, region. The EU is now getting in on the act. 'The European Union cannot afford to neglect the southern Caucasus. Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan form a strategic corridor linking southern Europe with central Asia,' Chris Patten, the European external relations commissioner, and Anna Lindh, the Swedish foreign minister, told Financial Times readers last month before the first high-level EU visit to the region. 'There is perhaps as much oil under the Caspian sea as under the North sea and a huge amount of gas there and in central Asia - good news for energy-hungry Europe,' they said. Soon after the EU visit, Georgia's president, Eduard Shevardnadze, welcomed European and US support for the 'Great Silk Road idea'. The plan, backed by Washington and American oil companies, including Chevron, is for a pipeline taking Turkmenistan and Kazakh oil to Baku, the Azerbaijani capital, through Tbilisi, the Georgian capital, and through eastern Turkey to the Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. Russia is desperate to maintain oil flows through its territory. Iran wants a pipeline running from the Caspian due south. China wants one going due east. There is also a plan, backed by the US, for a pipeline running from the Bulgarian Black sea port of Burgas through Macedonia to the Albanian Adriatic port of Vlore. The idea is for Caspian oil to be shipped to Burgas by tanker from the Black sea ports of Novorossiysk in Russia and Supsa in Georgia.... While the US and Nato - and now the EU - hold out the prospect of untold wealth for the Caucasian states of the former Soviet Union, the west will also have an important economic stake in Albania and Macedonia. The US already seems to take the view that all Serbs are bad and all Albanians good. The implications for Kosovo, a Serbian province with an overwhelming ethnic Albanian population, and for Macedonia, with armed groups from Kosovo stirring up trouble among the ethnic Albanian population, are potentially immense....Watch this space."
The new Great Game - East and west are jockeying for influence in the Caucasus. The prize is oil and gas
Guardian, 5 March 2001

“How much should we spend on the armed services? ... My view is we don’t spend on you, we invest in you. The men and women in the armed services are not a drain on our economic strength. Indeed you safeguard it. You’re not a burden on our economy, you are the critical foundation for growth.”
US Defence Secretary Donald Rumsfeld
addressing US troops at
Camp Bondsteel in Kosovo, 5 June 2001
US Defense Department Press Release

"This is about America's energy security. It's also about preventing strategic inroads by those who don't share our values. We're trying to move these newly independent countries toward the west. We would like to see them reliant on western commercial and political interests rather than going another way. We've made a substantial political investment in the Caspian, and it's very important to us that both the pipeline map and the politics come out right."
Bill Richardson 1998, US energy secretary, on US policy on the extraction and transport of Caspian oil
'A discreet deal in the pipeline - Nato mocked those who claimed there was a plan for Caspian oil'
Guardian, 15 February 2001


BBC Simplified  Map of Yugoslav Oil Pipelines
At The Time Of The NATO Bombing
Click here for location of US Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo
More detailed map (go to bottom of linked page)
indicates proximity of Bondsteel to Corridor 10 spur
leading to Corridor 8

 


<-----

Approx line of
proposed new
post-war
oil pipeline to
traverse Serbia
from Black Sea
to Croatian port of
Omisalj

<-----

A similar facility
is planned to pass
through
Macedonia
to the Albanian Port
of Vlore (Corridor 8)

"During the 1999 Balkans war, some of the critics of Nato's intervention alleged that the western powers were seeking to secure a passage for oil from the Caspian sea. This claim was widely mocked.... [However] For the past few weeks, a freelance researcher called Keith Fisher has been doggedly documenting a project which has, as far as I can discover, has been little-reported in any British, European or American newspaper. It is called the Trans-Balkan pipeline, and it's due for approval at the end of next month. Its purpose is to secure a passage for oil from the Caspian sea. The line will run from the Black sea port of Burgas to the Adriatic at Vlore, passing through Bulgaria, Macedonia and Albania. It is likely to become the main route to the west for the oil and gas now being extracted in central Asia. It will carry 750,000 barrels a day: a throughput, at current prices, of some $600m a month. The project is necessary, according to a paper published by the US Trade and Development Agency last May, because the oil coming from the Caspian sea 'will quickly surpass the safe capacity of the Bosphorus as a shipping lane'. The scheme, the agency notes, will 'provide a consistent source of crude oil to American refineries', 'provide American companies with a key role in developing the vital east-west corridor', 'advance the privatisation aspirations of the US government in the region' and 'facilitate rapid integration' of the Balkans 'with western Europe'...."
George Monbiot - 'A discreet deal in the pipeline - Nato mocked those who claimed there was a plan for Caspian oil'
Guardian, 15 February 2001

balkansoil.gif (7872 bytes)

"Albania, Bulgaria and Macedonia have given the go ahead for the construction of a $1.2bn oil pipeline that will pass through the Balkan peninsula. The project aims to allow alternative ports for the shipping of Russian and Caspian oil, that normally goes through the Bosphorus straits.   It aims to transport 750,000 daily barrels of oil. The pipeline will be built by the US-registered Albanian Macedonian Bulgarian Oil Corporation (AMBO). The pipeline will run for nearly 900 kilometres from the Bulgarian port of Burgas, over the Black Sea to the Albanian city of Vlore on the Adriatic coast, crossing Macedonia.... According to AMBO president Edward Ferguson, work on the pipeline will begin in 2005 and it is expected to be ready in three or four years. He added that the company had already raised about $900m from the Overseas Private Investment Corporation (OPIC) - a US development agency - the Eximbank and Credit Suisse First Boston, among others."
Go-ahead for Balkan oil pipeline
BBC Online, 28 December 2004

"On June 2, the U.S. Trade and Development Agency announced it had awarded the $588,000 grant to Bulgaria to carry out a feasibility study for the pipeline. Under the proposed plan, Caspian oil would be shipped by tanker from the Black Sea ports of Novorossiysk in Russia and from Supsa in former Soviet Georgia and then pumped by overland pipeline across Bulgaria, Macedonia and Albania to waiting European consumers. 'The continuing conflicts in Yugoslavia have made [the proposed trans-Balkan line] appear impractical in past years. But the prospect that the U.S. government would guarantee security in the region ... now makes it a much more attractive proposition. This grant represents a significant step forward for this policy (of multiple pipeline routes) and for U.S. business interests in the Caspian region,' said TDA Director J. Joseph Grandmaison. The decision came shortly before NATO and Russia reached agreement on how to force an end to the Kosovo conflict. The decision has raised speculation among regional experts that it may be part of a larger economic development plan envisioned by the Clinton administration to stabilize the southern Balkans after the massive dislocations and infrastructure damage caused by the Serbian repression in Kosovo and the U.S.-led NATO bombing of Serbia. The new strategic importance of the trans-Balkans region to U.S. policy makers could now justify its designation as a Main Export Pipeline for Caspian oil. The continuing conflicts in Yugoslavia have made it appear impractical in past years. But the prospect that the U.S. government would guarantee security in the region and also provide financial guarantees now makes it a much more attractive proposition... The Bulgaria-Macedonia-Albania route has already won support in Moscow and from the Chevron-led Caspian Pipeline Consortium that is developing the Caspian-Kazakhstan oil deposits. The main export line for Caspian crude will run through Russian territory to the Black Sea deposit at Novorossiysk and then by oil tankers to consumers."
Looking at Balkans route for Caspian crude
United Press International, 23 June 1999

"The `AMBO' Corporation (Pound Ridge, NY) has announced, on 17th January 1997, that Mr. E.L. (Ted) Ferguson - formerly Director of Oil & Gas Development for Europe and Africa for `Brown & Root Energy Services' has joined `AMBO' as President & CEO.... The `AMBO' Corporation (an acronym for the `Albanian- Macedonian-Bulgarian Oil Corporation') is the project developer of the 826 million $ Trans-Balkan Oil Pipeline which will carry crude oil from the Bulgarian Black Sea port of Bourgas to the Albanian Adriatic Sea port of Vlor....The feasibility study for `AMBO's ` Trans-Balkan Oil Pipeline, conducted by the international engineering company of `Brown & Root Ltd.' in London.... The resulting pipeline will become a part of the region's critical East-West corridor infrastructure which includes highway, railway, gas and fiber optic telecommunications lines. This pipeline will bring oil directly to the European market by eliminating tanker traffic through the ecologically sensitive waters of the Aegean and Mediterranean Seas."
M I L S N E W S
Skopje, 23 January, 1997

"Mediterranean refiners are suffering shortages of crude oil as Turkish security restrictions and bad weather cause a traffic jam of tankers carrying Russian oil through the straits of the Bosporus and Dardanelles... The congestion threatens a supply crunch similar to that experienced by European refiners during the Gulf war of 1991.... The jam has forced Russian producers to halt one pipeline sending oil to the Black Sea because storage tanks are full and tanker loadings are delayed. 'The Bosporus problem is hitting very hard,' said one refiner in Spain. The transit route of the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits, one of the most important export points for Russia, Europe's biggest supplier, is known for problems and delays. But the delays this year are compounded by the fact that refiners can no longer rely on the Iraqi substitute for Russian oil. Kirkuk oil, from Iraq's northern oilfields, resembles Russia's Urals oil. But Kirkuk, which is transported by pipeline to the Turkish port of Ceyhan, has not been available since March because of the sabotage of Iraq's section of the pipeline."
Bosporus tanker jam threatens shortage of oil
Financial Times, 11 January 2004

"As Alvaro González, captain of the Bosco Tapias, waited three weeks for a 30-vessel traffic jam to clear so he could begin the treacherous journey through the Bosporus and Dardanelles straits, he used the time to get his 274-meter oil tanker shipshape.... The reason for the delays, of up to 25 days since the start of the gridlock in the Turkish straits in December, is a mix of environmental, security and geopolitical factors which few industries other than oil face to such a degree....Collisions and groundings are the most frequent accidents for a waterway that at its narrowest point could not fit a tanker lengthwise. The doubling of oil exports from Russia in eight years, and the rush of oil expected from the Caspian have worried Turkish authorities and international oil companies, whose reputations ride on their safety record...This battle over control of the Caspian's oil and natural gas riches has raged since the early 1990s, with the US backing a system of pipelines that would bypass Iran as well as reduce Moscow's grip over countries such as Azerbaijan, Tajikistan and Kazakhstan."
Geopolitics slows tankers' passage in busy Bosporus
Financial Times, 11 January 2004

"As the region stabilizes, the Balkans may play an important role as a transit center for Russian and Caspian Sea region oil exports... the region is becoming more important as a transit center for Russian and Caspian Sea region oil exports to Western consumers."
US Energy Information Administration - Statement on Balkans October 2002

"Today, the circumstances which we have created here have changed. Today, it is absolutely necessary to guarantee the stability of Macedonia and its entry into NATO. But we will certainly remain here a long time so that we can also guarantee the security of the energy corridors which traverse this country."
General Michael Jackson, commander of KFOR in Macedonia
Italian daily, Sole 24 Ore, 13 April 1999

"The routes of potential trans-Balkan oil pipelines were laid down according to the interests of their future [EU and US] users....The territory of Yugoslavia (both former and present federation) is significant, therefore, because of its geographic position. Influential American analysts insist on the claim that Yugoslavia is in the immediate neighborhood of a zone of vital US interests - Black Sea/Caspian Sea region. And wherever there are vital US interests, there are NATO troops to protect them. European interests, claim our interlocutors, are even greater, because it is definitely not in the interest of the European Union countries that the key to their supplies is held by someone else....The project SEEL (South East European Line), initiated by the Italian company ENI is actually the corridor for transportation of Caspian oil from Constanta to Trieste, which passes through Serbia and uses the existing system of the Adriatic oil pipeline, all the way to Omisalj... Because of the political situation in Serbia this project was delayed for some better times... Until the fall of Slobodan Milosevic's regime Croatia insisted that the connection with Constanta bypass Serbia by going through Hungary [a less economic route]. However, after October 5 and the political changes in Yugoslavia, the meeting of this same group held in Brussels on October 26 and 27, 2000, expressed support for the transport of Caspian oil following the route from Black Sea, Romania, Yugoslavia and Croatia, respectively from Romanian port Constanta, through Pitesti, and Pancevo to Delnice in Croatia, from where the new pipeline would go towards Trieste and the old one continue to Omisalj on the island of Krk."
Underground Games in Kosovo
Reporter, Banja Luka, Srpska, B-H, February 27, 2001

"The project envisages construction of a new spur from Delnice to Trieste, 100 kilometers long, and conversion of the Omisalj port into the leading spot-market for resale of oil in the Mediterranean [Adriatic]..... One should recall that Milosevic did not end up in the Hague only as a war criminal, but above all because with his policies he stood in the way of a new network of Euro-Asian oil pipelines. His political fate was sealed in Zagreb, where two years ago a large ministerial-business conference of the EU INOGATE program was held. A hundred days later, Milosevic was not in power anymore, and at the time of the signing of a new oil pipeline from Constanta to Trieste he was already on the way to the Hague, supposedly by chance."
Mega Pipeline Becomes Reality
Novi List (Croatian Newspaper), 23 July 2002

"As to pipeline construction, one of the most significant of the EE/FSU projects is the $2.9 billion Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan (BTC) crude oil export pipeline being built for the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan Company. The 1,097-mile 42/46-inch line will transport crude from Azerbaijan and the Caspian region via Georgia to the Turkish Mediterranean port of Ceyhan. From Ceyhan, the crude will be transported to European and world markets. The political significance of this project has been recognized by Washington, which advocates expanding export routes even further from the region. BP, as operator of the development, expects to begin carrying crude from the first phase of the Azeri-Chirag-Gunashli development in the Caspian in the first quarter of 2005. Also significant is the 745-mile Constanta-Omisalj Pipeline proposal to link Romania, Yugoslavia and Croatia. If constructed, the pipeline could open up lucrative trade routes from Central Asia to Western Europe. All three states have signed on to construct the pipeline that has a proposed route from Costanta, Romania, through Yugoslavia to an Adriatic oil terminal near Omisalj, Croatia. There is also potential for the pipeline to be extended to Trieste, Italy, and beyond. Although financing the $1 billion project may pose a challenge in today's soft economy, the U.S. is reported to be a key supporter of the project and willing to provide $200,000 to fund a study into pipeline routes. Funding is also expected from Interstate Oil and Gas Transport to Europe, (INOGATE) a ten-nation consortium funded by the European Union to develop a pipeline network stretching form Central Asia to Europe."
Pipeline & Gas Journal's 2003 International Pipeline Construction Report
Pipeline and Gas Journal, August 2003

"..the Balkans are becoming an important transit center for energy supplies from the Black Sea area and beyond to Europe"
US Energy Information Administration - Previous statement on Balkans now updated with statement of October 2002 (see top)

"The Honorable U.S. Ambassador to Croatia Lawrence Rossin and the Croatian Minister of Economy Hrvoje Vojkovic signed a US$ 202,000 Trade and Development Agency (TDA) grant to fund a feasibility study for an international oil pipeline in Southeast Europe. The Serbian Minister of Mining and Energy, Ms. Kori Udovicki ....took part in the signing ceremony in Zagreb. The oil pipeline would originate in Constanta, Romania go through Serbia and Croatia and end in Trieste, Italy."
Southeastern Europe Business Brief
Volume 7.26, July 26, 2002

"On April 8 [1999] the Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany [PDS], an opponent of the war, issued a report describing an alleged CIA covert operation named 'Operation Roots' aimed at sowing ethnic divisions in Yugoslavia to encourage its breakup. The report claimed that this operation has been going on 'since the beginning of Clinton's presidency.' It was supposedly a joint operation with the German secret service, which also sought to destabilize Yugoslavia. The final objective 'is the separation of Kosovo, with the aim of it becoming part of Albania; the separation of Montenegro, as the last means of access to the Mediterranean; and the separation of the Vojvodina, which produces most of the food for Yugoslavia. This would lead to the total collapse of Yugoslavia as a viable independent state.' The report also asserts that the KLA was founded by the CIA with funding was funneled through drug-smuggling operations in Europe."
Fun Facts About Our New Allies
The Progressive Review (Washington), 22 June 1999

"War in the former Yugoslav republics is being fuelled by a massive and complex pattern of weapons shipments to Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, funded and organized by Germany. Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy has uncovered a widespread pattern of arms shipments which have been allowed to cross into Croatia and Bosnia with the tacit approval (and sometimes, apparently, direct support) of the governments of Germany and Austria, and possibly other states. As well, Germany has pointedly ignored the movement of German nationals into Croatia and Bosnia to fight against the Serbian residents of those two former Yugoslav states. All of the activity is in direct violation of German and Austrian law as well as being in violation of international embargoes against the supply of weapons to the conflict zone. All of the actions support Germany's traditional ally, Croatia, against the Serbian populations still resident in what is now Croatia and Bosnia-Herzegovina, and against the rump of the Yugoslav Federation. The wide collection of information came to Defense & Foreign Affairs from diverse sources, including Defense & Foreign Affairs correspondents. Some, from other sources, came in written form in a variety of languages, without elaboration, often with only partial identification of some of the transactions, companies and weapons involved."
Illegal German Weapons to Croatia and Bosnia Fuel the Balkan Conflict
Defense and Foreign Affairs, Strategic Policy 31 October 1992

"General Sir Michael Rose, the former United Nations military commander in Bosnia.... said false facts about the war in Bosnia were being fed to Congress.... he was visited by General John Galvin, former Supreme Allied Commander Europe who had been appointed by President Clinton to advise on a new structure for the Bosnian Army. General Rose said: 'We were escorted by a woman from the US Embassy who, in my view, was the most hostile American I met during all my time in Bosnia.' As they flew by helicopter towards Tuzla in the north, she pointed at all the destroyed villages high in the Zvijezda mountains and 'exclaimed excitedly' to General Galvin: 'Look at what the criminal Serbs have done.' In fact, General Rose said, they were Bosnian Croat villages ethnically cleansed by the Muslim forces. Later when they visited Mostar in the south where the Croats had virtually destroyed the Muslim sector in the eastern part of the town, the US official 'planted her hands on her ample hips' and cried: 'Well, at least this was done by the criminal Serbs.' General Rose said the woman burst into tears when it was pointed out that the Croats had been to blame. 'The fact was not lost on Galvin,' he said."
US bugged me in Bosnia, says General Rose
London Times, 10 November 1998

"A more revealing report was released April 8 by Jurgen Reents, press spokes person for the Party of Democratic Socialism in Germany. The PDS received almost as many votes as the Green Party, which is part of Germany's ruling coalition. The PDS has actively opposed the NATO war on Yugoslavia. Reents said the report came from someone who holds a 'strictly confidential and high position in the offices of the German government.' The report came through a Catholic priest who has kept the individual's identity secret but has verified the person's authenticity. The report asserts that top NATO, U.S., British and German officials are 'utterly lying in public concerning almost all the facts in regard to the Balkan War.' ...The report says that the German government knows NATO consciously created the refugee crisis. For example, the report says, NATO has targeted and destroyed nearly every fresh-water facility in Kosovo. It also asserts that there are KLA units in Kosovo--one is entirely U.S. mercenaries, the other German mercenaries--who report to the military commands of those countries. Perhaps most revealing is the report's description of a CIA covert operation cynically named 'Operation Roots.' It is aimed at sowing ethnic divisions in Yugoslavia to encourage its breakup. The report says that this operation has been going on 'since the beginning of Clinton's presidency.' It is a joint operation with the German secret service, which has also sought to destabilize Yugoslavia. .. The report asserts that the KLA was founded by the CIA. And the funding was funneled through drug-smuggling operations in Europe. The authenticity of this report cannot be independently verified at this time. But much of it is consistent with what is already known. It helps to expose the real forces behind the war on Yugoslavia and shows who are the true aggressors."
Who's The KLA? - German document reveals secret CIA role
Workers World Service, April 29, 1999

"I mean Kosovo is just one of the points of destabilization of Yugoslavia... I want people to know the truth about what happened here.... The United States, for its own geopolitical reasons, deliberately encouraged the secessionist tendency among Albanians, used them against the Yugoslav government in order to destabilize the Balkans.... One book has a great hold over Kosovo Albanians. It's called the 'Canon of Leke Dukagjiniis'. It's a 15th century text that spells out codes of behavior. It goes into great detail on how to carry out blood feuds, when and whom it is proper to kill. It lays out the proper methods to use when killing, rules and regulations and so on. And this Canon is alive among Albanians today, especially since the fall of communism. This is an intensely tradition-oriented culture. Blood feud is a constant threat for Albanians.... By methodically killing those who refused to support them, the KLA was striking a deep fear among Albanians: the refusal of one Clan member to obey could lead to revenge against his entire clan. And now the KLA had NATO bombers to enforce blood feud. ... [the KLA] knew their own people, their fears, their traditions. They knew that if they could prove they were deadly, the clan leaders would fall in line. Now they live in a society dominated by gangsters. None of this would have happened were it not for years of effort by the United States."
Cedomir Prlincevic, President of the Jewish Community in Pristina, and Chief Archivist of Kosovo
Interview with 'Emperors Clothes', 3 December 2000

"Albania ... offered NATO and the U.S. an important military outpost in the turbulent southern Balkans (in the 1990-96 period Albania opened its ports and airstrips for U.S. military use and housed CIA spy planes for flights over Bosnia).... The U.S. played a major role in the DP’s 1992 electoral victory, and it then provided the new government with military, economic, and political support. In the 1991-96 period Washington directly provided Albania $236 million in economic aid, making the U.S. the second largest bilateral economic donor (following Italy).....Following Berisha’s visit to the U.S. in March 1991, Washington began supplying direct assistance to the DP, including donations of computers and cars for the 1992 electoral campaign. William Ryerson, the first U.S. ambassador, stood next to Berisha on the podium at election rallies. The U.S. failed to criticize, and at times encouraged, the new president as he purged critics of his policies within the judicial system, police, and the DP—often through illegal means. By 1993 DP loyalists and family members held most of the prominent positions in Albania’s ministries, institutes, universities, and state media. Citing the threat of communism’s return, Berisha successfully instilled fear in the population and discredited his rivals. The U.S. embassy in Albania contributed to the polarization of Albanian politics by refusing to meet most of the opposition parties (former communists as well as others) for the first two years of DP rule. This one-sided view of democratization helped Berisha dismantle most political alternatives, some of which were moderate and truly democratic. Albania had become a strategic outpost in the region, and the U.S. did not want to jeopardize its new control and political influence in the country. In 1992 Washington deployed a Military Liaison Team to the country and started outfitting the Albanian military with nonlethal equipment, technical expertise, and training. Albania was the first East European state to request NATO membership, and in February 1994 it became a member of the NATO-associated Partnership for Peace. Albania has participated in numerous military training operations with the U.S. and other NATO powers, and the CIA has used Albania as a base for air reconnaissance missions over Bosnia. In January 1995, the U.S. Army finished building a radar station in northern Albania for use by the Albanian military. In addition, Albania opened its land, marine, and airport facilities to NATO operations in the former Yugoslavia....In the volatile Balkans, the U.S. is faced with a serious crisis that it helped fuel. The raging anarchy in Albania is both a serious setback for Albania’s democratic development and a threat to regional security. In this regard, the disintegration of police and military forces has resulted in the widespread availability of weapons. These are easily purchased or stolen not only by Berisha’s opponents but also by criminal gangs and terrorist elements both inside and outside Albania. "
Albania
Foreign Policy In Focus, Volume 2, Number 33 May 1997

"For amid the present furore over the no-show of Iraqi WMDs, let us remember that in Kosovo our humanitarian Prime Minister dragged this country into an illegal, US-sponsored war on grounds which later proved to be fraudulent. In 2003 Tony's Big Whopper was that Saddam's WMDs 'could be activated within 45 minutes'. In 1999 it was that Slobodan Milosevic's Yugoslavia was 'set on a Hitler-style genocide equivalent to the extermination of the Jews during World War Two'..... In fact, the Yugoslavs had by February 1999 already agreed to most of the autonomy proposals and had assented to a UN (but not Nato) peacekeeping team entering Kosovo..... It was the unwelcome prospect of Milosevic signing up to a peace deal and thereby depriving the US of its casus belli that caused Secretary of State Albright, with the connivance of Cook, to insert new terms into the Rambouillet accord purposely designed to be rejected by Belgrade. Appendix B to chapter seven of the document provided not only for the Nato occupation of Kosovo, but also for 'unrestricted access' for Nato aircraft, tanks and troops throughout Yugoslavia. The full text of the Rambouillet document was kept secret from the public and came to light only when published in Le Monde Diplomatique on 17 April. By this time, the war was almost a month old...The Kosovan war was, we were repeatedly told, fought 'to stop a humanitarian catastrophe'. 'It is no exaggeration to say that what is happening is racial genocide' - claimed the British Prime Minister - 'something we had hoped we would never again experience in Europe. Thousands have been murdered, 100,000 men are missing and hundreds forced to flee their homes and the country.' The Serbs were, according to the US State Department, 'conducting a campaign of forced population movement not seen in Europe since WW2'....With public support for war faltering, and a Downing Street spokesman talking of a 'public-relations meltdown', it was time for the Lie Machine to go into overdrive.... To date, the total body count of civilians killed in Kosovo in the period 1997-99 is still fewer than 3,000, a figure that includes not only those killed in open fighting and during Nato air strikes, but also an unidentified number of Serbs. Clearly it was an exaggeration - of Munchausenian proportions - for the Prime Minister to describe what happened in Kosovo as 'racial genocide'. In both Kosovo and Iraq, the government's war strategy seems to have been threefold:
1. In order to whip up public support for war, tell lies so outrageous that most people will believe that no one would have dared to make them up.
2. When the conflict is over, dismiss questions about the continued lack of evidence as 'irrelevant' and stress alternative 'benefits' from the military action, e.g., 'liberation' of the people.
3. Much later on, when the truth is finally revealed, rely on the fact that most people have lost interest and are now concentrating on the threat posed by the next new Hitler.
An admission of the government's culpability for the Kosovan war only slipped out in July 2000, when Lord Gilbert, the ex-defence minister, told the House of Commons that the Rambouillet terms offered to the Yugoslav delegation had been 'absolutely intolerable' and expressly designed to provoke war. Gilbert's bombshell warranted scarcely a line in the mainstream British media, which had been so keen to label the Yugoslavs the guilty party a year before."

How the battle lies were drawn
Spectator, 14 June 2003

"Almost before the Berlin Wall came down in 1989, then Secretary of Defense Dick Cheney called together a group of players to chart out a strategy for the post-Cold War world. The names should be familiar, because they run the present administration: Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld, Deputy Secretary of Defense Paul Wolfowitz, Secretary of State Colin Powell, and Lewis 'Scooter' Libby, Cheney's chief of staff. The goal was to 'shape' the world in order to, in the words of another team member, Zalmay Khalizad (now special envoy to Afghanistan), 'preclude the rise of another global rival for the indefinite future.' In his book 'From Containment to Global Leadership?' Khalizad argues that it is 'vital' to prevent such a rival from developing and 'to be willing to use force if necessary.'.."
Are we on the road to war?
The San Francisco Examiner, 19 April 2002

"The greatest untapped oil reserves in the world are located in the former Soviet republics bordering the Caspian Sea (Azerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan)...... This is the fuel that is feeding renewed militarism and must lead to new wars of conquest .... This is the key to understanding the bellicosity of US foreign policy over the past decade. The bombardment of Yugoslavia is the latest in a series of wars of aggression that have spanned the globe. Though they had certain regional motivations, these wars have been the US response to the opportunities and challenges opened by the demise of the USSR. Washington sees its military might as a trump card that can be employed to prevail over all its rivals in the coming struggle for resources.... For reasons both of world strategy and control over natural resources, the US is determined to secure for itself a dominant role in the former Soviet sphere.... The US House Committee on International Relations has begun holding hearings on the strategic importance of the Caspian region. At one meeting in February 1998, Doug Bereuter [said] Stated US policy goals regarding energy resources in this region,' he continued, 'include fostering the independence of the States and their ties to the West; breaking Russia's monopoly over oil and gas transport routes; promoting Western energy security through diversified suppliers; encouraging the construction of east-west pipelines that do not transit Iran; and denying Iran dangerous leverage over the Central Asian economies.'.... This is the significance of the present military action against Yugoslavia and the growth of militarism generally. Kosovo is a testing ground for wars that will follow in the former Soviet region.... The United States for its part gives the impression of a society on the verge of a nervous breakdown. Public life is punctuated by outbreaks of violence by schoolchildren that have left the country in a state of semi-shock. No explanation, beyond the most banal, has been offered by officials or experts for these explosions of violent anti-social behavior. In their own way, however, they testify to the brutality of contemporary American life and the suppressed antagonisms that lie just under the surface.... The country will continue to be remade as a high-tech garrison, where the bulk of public expenditure will be devoted towards military purposes abroad. Social programs will increasingly be replaced by naked domestic repression."
Why is NATO at war with Yugoslavia? World power, oil and gold
World Socialist Web Site, 24 May 1999

"General Wesley Clark, the former Nato commander and presidential hopeful, will testify next month at the war crimes trial of Slobodan Milosevic under conditions of strict censorship and confidentiality imposed by the United States. Washington is believed to be fearful of potentially damaging revelations about its Balkan realpolitik during the 1990s and in the Bosnian War. General Clark, who is seeking the Democratic Party nomination for President, will be one of the highest-profile witnesses to take the stand. The former Nato commander directed the alliance's 78-day bombing campaign in Kosovo in 1999, after Serbian forces had launched an onslaught against ethnic Albanian separatists. General Clark will testify on December 15 and 16. Public galleries will be closed and the broadcast system that transmits the proceedings on the internet and on closed-circuit television will be shut down. The conditions of General Clark's testimony include a 48-hour delay to enable the US Government to review the transcript and seek the court's consent to censor parts on the ground of national security. Two US representatives will attend the sessions. The three-judge panel hearing Mr Milosevic's case agreed to the conditions, which are unique, because they decided that they were justified by the potential importance of General Clark's testimony, Jim Landale, the tribunal spokesman, said. In his cross-examination of General Clark, Mr Milosevic could reveal sensitive information about the West's diplomatic and military strategy for dealing with the crisis in the Balkans."
General Clark to testify against Milosevic
London Times, 20 November 2003

"The final toll of civilians confirmed massacred by Yugoslav forces in Kosovo is likely to be under 3,000, far short of the numbers claimed by Nato governments during last year's controversial air strikes on Yugoslavia. When Yugoslav forces withdrew from Kosovo in June last year, Nato spokesmen estimated that the Serbs had killed at least 10,000 civilians. While the bombing was under way William Cohen, the US defence secretary, announced that 100,000 Kosovo Albanian men of military age were missing after being taken from columns of families being deported to Albania and Macedonia. 'They may have been murdered,' he said....The exhumation of less than 3,000 bodies is sure to add fuel to those who say Nato's intervention against Yugoslavia was not 'humanitarian' and that it had other motives ..."
Serb killings 'exaggerated' by west
Guardian, 18 August 2000

"President Clinton has authorised an all-out campaign to topple Slobodan Milosevic, according to sources close to the US Government. Earlier this spring, Mr Clinton signed a secret presidential 'finding' giving the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) the green light to try to bring down the Yugoslav president, said sources quoted in the US news-magazine Time. The reported campaign has two tracks, overt and covert....Now, six new radio transmitters outside Serbian territory will beam a 24-hour diet of pro-Western broadcasts to bolster dissident elements. "
'CIA ordered to topple Milosevic': US report
BBC Online, 6 July 1999

"The last time [before Iraq] American bombers were sent over the horizon to rain democracy on a reluctant constituency was in the spring of 1999, when the NATO alliance engaged the hearts and minds of the Serbian government. The regime to be changed was that of Slobodan Milosevic. For 78 days, NATO -- but mostly American bombers -- attacked military and civilian targets throughout Serbia and Montenegro.... The bombings killed almost as many Serbs as the number of Americans who later died in the World Trade Center.... During the week before Djindjic's March 12 assassination, I traveled extensively in the former Yugoslavia, now called the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro.... Djindjic had come to power courtesy of the oddest of bed fellows: the U.S. government and local gangsters, who flourished in the 1990s because American sanctions had put legitimate business to the wall. In the beginning, both the United States and the gangsters thought that their interests would best be served with a new government in Serbia, and both agreed to sacrifice Milosevic on the altar of war guilt in The Hague. But more recently, this coalition found itself with conflicting agendas. The gangsters thought that support for Djindjic would exempt them from a summons to the International Criminal Tribunal, but the U.S. made further aid to Serbia conditional on Serbia's serving up more suspects to that court."
Bombing down to Belgrade - An unholy alliance with Serb gangsters
US's Providence Journal, Rhode Island, 4 April 2003

"...there is evidence that underworld groups, controlled by Zoran Djindjic and linked to US intelligence, carried out a series of assassinations of key supporters of the Milosevic regime, including Defence Minister Pavle Bulatovic and Zika Petrovic, head of Yugoslav Airlines.... Despite the opposition of most of its citizens, [Djindjic] the 'heralder of democracy' followed the requirements of the 'international community' and after 74 years the name of Yugoslavia disappeared off the political map. The strategic goal of its replacement with a series of weak and divided protectorates had finally been achieved....The lesson from Serbia for today's serial regime changers is a simple one. You can try to subjugate a people by sanctions, subversion and bombs. You can, if you wish, overthrow governments you dislike and seek to impose your will by installing a Hamid Karzai, General Tommy Franks or a Zoran Djindjic to act as imperial consul. But do not imagine that you can then force a humiliated people to pay homage to them."
The quisling of Belgrade
The murdered Serbian prime minister was a reviled western stooge whose economic reforms brought misery
Guardian, 14 March 2003

"The political stakes are high and the financial risks many but the spoils are huge for investors seeking a way to pipe Russian and Caspian oil around the treacherous Turkish straits to the energy-hungry West. Oil producers lost at least $700 million last winter as bad weather and heavy seas kept their tankers stuck for as long as two weeks at the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits —- the only way for sea-bound crude to exit the Black Sea. Delayed for years by political wrangling and environmental fears, several billion-dollar pipeline projects are finally inching toward start dates, with countries and investors around the vast Black Sea vying for pole position. 'An exit-Black Sea pipeline is a necessity, because the oil market requires diversified supplies,' said Max Shein, chief equity strategist at Moscow-based Broker Credit Service..... 'One day the ships will carry the oil to us,' said Nikolov, whose company, the Albanian Macedonian Bulgarian Oil Corporation (AMBO), aims to link the Bulgarian Black Sea port of Bourgas with Vlore, on Albania’s Adriatic coast. The need is clear: already booming oil production in the Urals and the Caspian Sea regions is expected to double crude traffic through the Turkish straits through 2015. Russia has increased exports by 50 percent since 2001 to become the world’s second largest oil exporter behind Saudi Arabia, and Kazakhstan expects to more than double its output of 1.3 billion tonnes of crude in the next decade. AMBO hopes to build a 912-km (567-mile) pipeline from Bourgas through Macedonia to Vlore, a deep port accessible to huge tankers. Analysts warn the pipeline’s length and political risks in the region continue to hinder the plan, which originally surfaced in 1994, but Nikolov said a deal could be imminent. 'I expect the final political accord on the pipeline to be endorsed next year,' he said. 'No pipeline will ever lose money. But a pipeline is as much economics as it is politics.'.... Alongside the AMBO plan is a project to run a link between Romania’s Black Sea port of Constanta to Italy’s Trieste......"
Black Sea Pipelines Look to Bypass Straits
Reuters, 28 November 2005

"Five countries are expected to sign in January an agreement to build an oil pipeline from Romania to Italy. The project, which includes rehabilitating Romania's Black Sea port Constanta, would cost at least $2.4bn (€2bn, Ł1.4bn), a feasibility study has found. People close to the project said two key oil companies, one international energy group and one state-owned energy company, had expressed interest. Henry Owen, a financial adviser to the project, said the pipeline would feed refineries in south-eastern Europe, Italy, Austria and Bavaria and would send oil to tankers via an existing pipeline from Trieste to the deepwater port at Genoa. It would reduce European dependence on Middle Eastern oil, would be outside Russian control and would help to alleviate some of the congestion in the Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits, analysts said. But they warned that the pipeline faced several competitors and that an agreement could still be scuttled by one of the five states. If the signing ceremony proceeds, the next big hurdle will be reaching agreement on the pipeline tariffs. Ian Woollen, senior analyst at Wood Mackenzie, the UK-based consultants, said: 'It is a step forward, but there is still a long way to go. There are a lot of competing options that make more sense logistically and commercially.' Two pipelines that would originate in Burgas, Bulgaria, compete with the so-called Pan-European Pipeline from Constanta to Trieste. One would send oil to Alexandroupolis in Greece, the other to Vlore on Albania's Adriatic coast. Politics plays as much of a role as money. Russia's interest in controlling the region's oil flow, and the US opposing objective in diversifying the power away from Moscow, mix with the broader tug between Asia and Europe, both large markets keen to receive the oil. Meanwhile, Turkey wants to reduce the strain of shipping almost all the region's oil through the dangerously busy Bosphorus and Dardanelles straits, but does not want to lose control of the power and the income that comes with being such an important trading gateway. Altogether a dozen pipelines are proposed for the region. The most significant new pipeline is the BP-led Baku to Ceyhan line, expected to open this spring."
Five countries to build joint oil pipeline
Financial Times, 20 December 2005

"The defence lawyers assigned to ex-Yugoslav president Slobodan Milosevic have asked for the former NATO commander General Wesley Clark to be recalled to the witness stand for further questioning.... In their latest submission, filed on February 10, defence lawyers Steven Kay and Gillian Higgins, whose assistance is imposed on Milosevic against his will, objected to the fact that questioning of Clark at the time was restricted to the contents of a statement he had given to prosecutors. By pressing for such restrictions, they argued, 'The prosecution and the [United States] government structured the appearance of General Clark in the trial in such a way that only issues in support of the prosecution’s case could be adduced.'... The US embassy in The Hague has since written to the court, reminding judges of Washington's desire to protect 'sensitive information and legitimate national interests' and seeking leave to file a lengthier written submission on the matter.'"
Milosevic Lawyers Seek Recall of General Clark
Instituted For War And Peace Reporting, 17 February 2006

"A deal to supply the EU with 10bn cubic metres of Turkmen gas per year from 2009 has been hailed by officials as 'an important step'.  The agreement will boost the EU-backed Nabucco pipeline - planned to reduce reliance on Russian gas, which accounts for a quarter of EU supplies. The Turkmen gas will only make up a small percentage of EU demands and it is not clear how it will reach Europe.  Nabucco is due to be built in 2010 and the first gas will flow in 2013."
EU secures Turkmenistan gas deal
BBC Online, 14 April 2008

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Post Milosevic, the west's relations with Serbia have remained uncertain, particularly connected to the long-standing dispute over the territorial status of Kosovo. Announced in April 2008, the Nabucco pipeline project proposals for bringing gas from Turkmenistan in the Caspian Sea region to western Europe has carefully avoided the territory of the former Yugoslavia. Nonetheless its path illustrates the strategic importance of the Balkans for energy supplies into western Europe. Unlike several oil pipeline projects in the Balkans, this project does not require access to international shipping terminals on the Aegean sea coast, and the territory of former Yugoslavia (with its outstanding issues of instability and slow progress towards membership of the EU) can therefore be avoided.

"Russian President Dmitry Medvedev had reason to look pleased when he met Serbian President Boris Tadic in Moscow on Christmas Eve. The two leaders finalized an agreement for Gazprom, Russia's behemoth state gas monopoly, to buy a controlling interest in Serbia's state oil and gas industry — and a plan for Russia to construct a gas pipeline through the country. Former Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica, whose government negotiated the deal, says it will end his country's crippling energy shortages by guaranteeing gas supplies and using Russian capital to rebuild Serbia's decaying infrastructure. 'We are in front of a very good solution,' he says. 'First of all, from the point of view of the interests of Serbia, for its independence, it is very important that the capitals of different countries are involved.' But critics say Gapzrom is exploiting Serbia's weak economy in its push to boost control over the European energy market. Many Serbians welcomed sacrificing control of their energy industry — for political reasons as much as economic ones. Both Russia and Serbia are Slavic countries that consider each other traditional allies. Moscow supported Belgrade during its bombing by NATO in 1999, memories of which are still raw here..... There's much more at stake than simply the Serbian energy market. Belgrade is part of a fierce struggle between Russia and the West over the future of energy supplies to Europe. A number of European companies had hoped to buy into Serbia's energy industry but withdrew because of the cost. But despite the recent economic turmoil, Gazprom found the money because it wants to make Serbia the European hub of its planned new South Stream pipeline from Russia. The project is meant to compete with a planned European Union pipeline from the Caspian Sea that would cut out Russia by delivering Central Asian gas through Georgia. The Georgians say energy was a major factor behind Russia's invasion of their country last year. The United States champions the European Union's Nabucco pipeline. U.S. Deputy Assistant Secretary of State Matthew Bryza, who has led the effort, says Russia's plan is part of a strategy to win control over the European gas market."
Serbia Plays Key Role In Russian Gas Pipeline Plans
NPR, 7 January 2009

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"If one were to ask Serbs about what they needed more - General Ratko Mladic, who was delivered to the international detention center of The Hague war crimes tribunal on Tuesday, or membership in the European Union (EU) - the majority would certainly vote for the latter. The economy and living conditions in Serbia are in such bad shape that EU membership is viewed as almost the only cure for all of its ills. This is partly true. Brussels has announced more than once that the EU would lift all obstacles to Serbia's entry after the extradition of General Ratko Mladic, the former commander of Bosnian Serb troops during the 1992-1995 war, to The Hague. So, it was made abundantly clear that Mladic was Serbia's ticket into the EU. On June 1, he was transferred to a cell in The Hague....While Mladic was in hiding, obvious attempts were being made to distance Serbia further away from Russia. In the early 2000s, the Americans spread rumors that he took refuge in Russia and was settled quite comfortably there. This is clear from the U.S. State Department cables that were released by WikiLeaks. The reasoning was simple - if Mladic, an international criminal, lives in Moscow, then Russia must be blocking Serbia's progress, its entry to the EU and accession to Western civilization. It was a shameless tactic, but it was effective. However, Serbia's alienation from Russia began even earlier - when Moscow did nothing serious to stop NATO bombings in 1999. The then Prime Minister Yevgeny Primakov only made the empty gesture of ordering his plane to turn around mid-air as he was on his way to the United States. Now it is clear that the historical ties between Russia and Serbia have been severed and that Serbia has opted to join the EU. Slovenia is already in the EU. Croatia, Macedonia and Montenegro are official candidates. Albania, Bosnia and Herzegovina, and now Serbia are potential candidates. It seems that the Balkan issue, which has tormented the world so much since the 19th century, will soon become a thing of the past. We'll still be friends with Serbia, but now on the basis of the South Stream project. But this will be an entirely different sort of relationship - one based on hydrocarbons rather than on Slavic friendship."
Ratko Mladic - the high price of EU integration for Serbia
RIA Novosti, 2 June 2011

"A U.S. army official in Romania says an American military base near the Black Sea port of Constanta will become a permanent facility in the spring and be jointly used with Romanian forces. Lt. Col. Daniel Herrigstad says the U.S. government invested $48 million to modernize the base. Herrigstad told the news agency Agerpres on Friday that the base would initially host up to 1,700 U.S. and Romanian soldiers."
US military base in Romania to become permanent
Associated Press, 23 October 2009

Serbia - Four Periods Of American Espionage

 

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Find Out How Similar Dirty Games Are Being Played In The Caucacus
As The Oil Makes Its Way From The Caspian To The Coast Of Yugoslavia
Via The Black Sea Region

Click Here

The Key To The Covert Western-Sought Break Up Of Moscow Allied Former Yugoslavia Was The Spread Of Civil War In Which The CIA Is Known To Have Secretly Participated
The Question Now Arises As To Whether The CIA May Also Have Had Its Own Highly Placed Agent Provocateur In Belgrade For This Purpose

Since The Embarrassment Of His Outing As A CIA Double-Agent Jovica Stanisic Has Been Described As Having Secretly Worked For Peace
However Whilst Milosevic's Government Was Found Not Guilty By The International Court of Justice Of Alleged Involvement In The Srebrenica Atrocities
Jovica Stanisic Still Faces Allegations Of Sending Scorpion Death Squads To Srebrenica

"President Milosevic's secret police chief and organiser of Serb death squads during the genocidal ethnic cleansing of disintegrating Yugoslavia was the United States' top CIA agent in Belgrade, according to the independent Belgrade Radio B92. The claim that from 1992 until the end of the decade, Jovica Stanisic, head of Serbia's murderous DB Secret Police, was regularly informing his CIA handlers of the thinking in Milosevic's inner circle has shocked the region. Stanisic is said to have loyally served his two masters for eight years. He is facing war crimes charges at the International Criminal Court at The Hague. In the terrifying years of Yugoslavia's internecine wars, he acted as the willing 'muscle' behind Milosevic's genocidal campaigns in Croatia, Kosovo and Bosnia, including Sebrenica.... Like in a Cold War spy thriller, Serbia's secret police chief met his CIA handlers in safe houses, parks and boats on the river Sava to betray his master's action plans. He provided, it is claimed, information on the whereabouts of Nato hostages, aided CIA operatives in their search for Muslim mass graves and helped the US set up secret bases in Bosnia to monitor the implementation of the 1995 Dayton peace accord....Thus the judges at The Hague are having to judge a man who allegedly sent the Scorpion death squads to Srebrenica to 'deal' with men and boys fleeing the UN-protected Muslim enclave, while working with the CIA trying to end Milosevic's ethnic wars."
Death squad leader ‘was top CIA agent’
Sunday Herald, 22 March 2009

Western Sponsorship Of The Opposition - How Milosevic Was Eventually Toppled

"[In order to topple Milosevic] Approximately $30 million, predominantly from America, were channeled into the country [Serbia] via an office in Budapest, in order to equip the opposition for the election campaign with computers, telephones and office materials. Hundreds of election helpers were trained abroad for these tasks."
Helping the Revolution
Der Spiegel, 9 October 2000

"Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro--Serbian television viewers were cheerfully amused during the Georgian crisis that led to President Eduard Shevardnadze's overthrow. Otpor! was founded in early 2000, and quickly spread from Belgrade to every corner of Serbia. The breaking-news footage from Tbilisi, beamed into their living-room TVs, showed symbols and political iconography they had grown deeply familiar with. The posters of a clenched fist, plastered everywhere, were identical to those used by Serbia's Otpor! (Resistance!) movement in 2000, during the campaign to oust Slobodan Milosevic. Even the slogans on billboards were familiar: 'Gotov je!' ('He's finished'), the Latin-script letters proclaimed--in Serbian. Clearly, young Georgian protesters didn't have time to translate the propaganda material they'd borrowed from their Serbian friends.... And yes: Otpor! militants have confirmed that they were consulted by Georgian opposition--and that they provided advice, material, and help. ... [in Serbia] The European Union, the United States, and many non-governmental organizations provided training in political marketing and resistance tactics, advice--and yes, money too.... The campaign was massive, the expenses high, and the funding was foreign--smuggled across the border and carefully concealed."
A Revolution Brought to You By
TDL, 1 December 2003

"Tony Blair’s top diplomat in Baghdad was ignored when he urged the Americans not to sack 25,000 Baathist officials, the Iraq inquiry was told yesterday. Sir John Sawers, Special Representative in Baghdad at the time, now the head of MI6, testified to the chaos he saw in post-invasion Iraq on arriving in the capital in early May 2003.... Sir John was asked whether the change of regime in Baghdad had come up in early discussions between Mr Blair and Mr Bush in 2001. He replied: 'I think there are lots of countries where we would like to see a change in regime but that doesn’t mean that one actively pursues policies in that direction.' When Mr Blair and Mr Bush had their first meeting — at Camp David in February 2001 — 'aggressive regime change [in Iraq] was never given serious consideration'. He said that the approach adopted with Saddam was based on methods that had led to the ousting of Slobodan Milosevic in Serbia the previous year. Among the proposals considered was support for opposition groups..."
Iraq fell into chaos after US ignored Blair envoy’s advice not to sack all Baathists
London Times, 11 December 2009

"For 10 years Serbia had successfully resisted the war against Yugoslavia, which began in the early 1990s. After NATO’s war of aggression against our country ended in 1999 without a clear victory, London and Washington carried out a vast special operation to overthrow Milosevic; it was the mother of all subsequent 'color revolutions.' Through a presidential decree, Bill Clinton gave the CIA carte blanche to carry out a coup in Yugoslavia. Enormous sums were invested in political parties, NGOs [non-governmental organizations] and media. The fragmented opposition [to Milosevic and the Socialist Party of Serbia] was unified under foreign guidance. A coalition of 18 parties under the umbrella called the 'Democratic opposition,' or DOS, formed with one goal: overthrow Milosevic. William Montgomery, the person later named as U.S. ambassador to Belgrade, set up a specially equipped office in Budapest [in neighboring Hungary]. Opposition activists attended courses that were run by CIA agents. The so-called student group known as 'Otpor' (Resistance) used the slogan 'Gotov je' (He is finished) to conduct the election — this was all a project of Western intelligence agencies. In the Yugoslav presidential election on Sept. 24 the incumbent Milosevic obtained 15 percent fewer votes than Western-backed candidate Vojislav Kostunica. However, since neither of these two leading candidates won an absolute majority, it should have come to a run-off ballot. The DOS parties claimed that Milosevic had falsified the elections and Kostunica was victorious in the first round of voting. Otpor led violent street protests. DOS wanted to prevent the runoff, although they would have won for sure. Milosevic refused to accept a resignation without a second round of voting. At the height of the dispute, the Supreme Court issued a strange decision: Because of rumors of irregularities in the first ballot, all votes from the southern Serbian province of Kosovo were simply canceled. Of course, the vote in those districts would have to be repeated. With Kosovo’s votes cancelled, Kostunica’s vote share increased to more than 50 percent. Milosevic acknowledged the decision and on Oct. 5 congratulated Kostunica’s victory. This step, which had barely been reported, was buried in what was a media-constructed 'popular uprising.' As Otpor set the Parliament on fire, the Kostunica forces immediately and completely seized the government apparatus. With this coup they avoided a controlled handover of power. The years-long image of Milosevic as a 'dictator' in the Western media would have appeared absurd if he were simply removed by a Democratic vote. The West didn’t want to risk this loss of credibility. Mainly though, the 'revolution' needed to be carried out violently to shorten the time until the new regime could allow far-reaching Western interventions in the state and economy, thus making the transformation irreversible.... But beyond the Western propaganda, there was in reality a great discontent among the population [in 2000]. ... Under the guidance of and in close collaboration with their foreign sponsors, the opposition understood how to blame on Milosevic the suffering caused by Western sanctions and NATO’s war and how to make big promises should they win the elections. The bombs had destroyed the economy and infrastructure, which aggravated the social discontent. When the government used up the remaining government funds for repairing the main road and rail links, the voters felt even more pain and were susceptible to opposition propaganda that claimed voting out Milosevic would stop the foreign pressure and increase the standard of living. It is in this sense that one should understand White House spokesperson Ari Fleischer’s comments that the war was part of the 'regime change' strategy of NATO and the United States, because it weakened Milosevic and led to his fall. Since the early 1990s there have been not many different wars in Yugoslavia — in Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia, Kosovo — it was all one war: that of the West against Yugoslavia. In this statement I fully agree with Milosevic. Former U.S. President George Bush Sr., while speaking during the celebration of German reunification, discussed the elimination of the consequences of the Versailles Treaty in Europe. A key point regarding Versailles at the beginning of the 20th century was to weaken Germany in favor of the Eastern European countries, which Germany had considered as satellites within the 'Central Europe' doctrine. Thus, those in Versailles for the first time recognized Yugoslavia as a state. Until Yugoslavia’s breakup, Catholic and Muslim groups in Yugoslavia were used by Western powers to counteract Russian influence, which was based on historical closeness with Serbs. In the 1990s, however, a resurgent Germany’s role was to serve as a NATO member to weaken Russia and Eastern Europe, which was to be transformed into a 'Euro-Atlantic region' — but of course only as a colony. In line with the long-cherished desire of the British, Serbia especially should be weakened as a potential ally of Russia. With Milosevic it could never happen. Kosovo is now home to Camp Bondsteel, the largest U.S. military base in Europe, in the area of the proposed major oil and gas pipelines from the Caspian Sea."
Former Milosevic Aide Vladimir Krsljanin
Interview with Krsljanin: ‘Serbia is an occupied country’
Junge Welt, (Germany) 6 October 2010

"The book [I have written - 'Struggling with Democratic Transition: After the cheering stops'] deals with the period after I left the embassy in Croatia in 2001 and left for Budapest where I opened up the Yugoslav affairs office, then when I came to Belgrade after Miloševic’s fall. Therefore, it is about the period from 2000 until 2004 and those are my personal experiences from that time, but I was focusing on what we from the embassy did......[A] chapter of the book is dedicated to the time in Budapest and the office I opened there. It was supposed to be the U.S. embassy for Serbia in-exile, the reason for placing the office in Budapest was for the most part because people from Serbia could simply travel to Hungary, without visas. The book describes in detail the ways in which we were helping the democratic alternative to Miloševic’s regime win.... [Our goal was] To bring down Slobodan Miloševic’s regime. When I arrived in Budapest, which was in June of 2000, I had to find a place for my new office, employees. We wanted to be completely separate from the U.S. embassy in Budapest, we assumed we were going to be there at least three years. Everything changed when Miloševic decided to call early elections. At that point, we realized that it was an opportunity we could miss and that we needed to help the democratic opposition in Serbia in every way to defeat Miloševic.... [RTS (Serbian state broadcaster) aired a documentary in October 2010 called The Final Clash, about the events on October 5, 2000. In that documentary Montgomery said that he helped bring in more than USD 100mn into Serbia in order to topple Miloševic] I don’t want to comment on the amount of money. I actually don’t know how much money was really spent. I can only say that the U.S. thought that Miloševic had to fall, that he was a big source of instability in the entire region. One of the ways to achieve that was to develop the civil society, especially independent media and associations such as GONG. A democratic alternative to Miloševic’s regime needed to be strengthened by all means. For example, we gave special cell phones to key political leaders of the opposition which were working during the protests independently from the Serbian telecommunications network.... During the 1990's the U.S. was involved in many international events in which we had a key role and which we considered great successes. At the end of each event we had a scene that could have been a typical American movie happy ending – for example, crowds of citizens in front of the Serbian parliament and Miloševic's fall. In reality, it was not the end of the movie but only the end of a chapter in the history of a region or a country, and a beginning of a new chapter, full of new challenges and perhaps even more difficult."
Former U.S. Ambassador to Croatia and Serbia William Montgomery
Ex-U.S. ambassador talks Miloševic fall
B92 (Serbia), 29 October 2010

'Great Powers Meddling'

"A UN court ruled Kosovo's claim of independence as legal, intensifying a global debate about sovereignty and self-determination. But the conflict in Georgia reveals great powers - not courts - decide the fate of nations....During the Kosovo conflict, Russia viewed itself as the historic guardian of Serbian interests against an expansionist West. However, once NATO mobilized militarily against Belgrade, there was very little Russia could do to stop a Western-backed secession of Kosovo from Serbia. Moscow felt sidelined and not taken seriously as a great power. So after Kosovo declared its independence in 2008, Russia adopted the case as a precedent. And it applied this precedent in Georgia under the pretence of maintaining stability in the South Caucasus, as the West had done in Kosovo nearly 10 years prior. 'From the Russian perspective they will tell you that their position was not contradictory,' Alexandros Petersen, an expert on Eurasian politics at the Atlantic Council, told Deutsche Welle. 'They were initially saying Kosovo should not be independent. They were also initially saying Abkhazia should not be independent either. Their position after the break up of USSR supported Georgian sovereignty up until the conflict in 2008. They will tell you their position only changed when the position of the West on Kosovo changed.' While the Russians try to equate their role in the Caucasus with the Western role in the Balkans, Petersen draws a distinction between the positions of the two powers....'The broader lesson is that we have not gotten past the great powers meddling, the great powers carving up borders in the sense that we thought we had,' Petersen said. 'What it underscores in both cases is that it's larger powers with geopolitical interests that determine the outcome of these states.'"
Great powers playing politics with Kosovo and Georgia
Deutsche Welle, 10 September 2010


2. US Backed Terrorism In Croatia

"Former Croatian General Ante Gotovina stands accused of war crimes in connection with a 1995 military offensive. Some 150 civilians were killed in the advance. Now, it looks like he may have had help from the United States. His trial may not get started before the end of 2006 or the spring of 2007, but already the case against former Croatian general Ante Gotovina promises some surprises. Gotovina, who is accused of being responsible for the murder of at least 150 Serbian civilians and the eviction of some 150,000 Serbs from the Krajina region in August 1995, may have had some American help. Croatian military sources told SPIEGEL that Gotovina had direct though secret support from both the Pentagon and the Central Intelligence Agency in planning and carrying out the 'Storm' offensive, which was designed to retake the Krajina region from the Serbs. The International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) behind chief prosecutor Carla del Ponte has charged Gotovina and the late Croatian leader Franco Tudjman with committing a 'joint criminal undertaking' with the goal of ethnically cleansing the Serbs from Croatia. In preparing for the offensive, Croatian soldiers were allegedly trained at Fort Irwin in California and the Pentagon purportedly aided in planning the operation. Additional training assistance is said to have come from the American firm Military Professional Resources Incorporated. Immediately prior to the offensive, then-Deputy CIA Director George Tenet allegedly met with Gotovina and Tudjman's son -- then in charge of Croatian intelligence -- for last minute consultations. During the operation, a US aircraft is said to have destroyed Serbian communication and anti-aircraft centers and the Pentagon allegedly passed on information gathered by satellite to Gotovina. Earlier this month, the Zagreb weekly Globus, claiming sources within Gotovina's defense team, alleged that then US President Bill Clinton knew all about the planned offensive. Clinton, the paper alleged, was angry at the Serbs for having overrun the UN protected Bosnian 'safe area' of Srebrenica the previous month and wanted them punished. Gotovina was arrested in early December after having been in hiding for years. The European Union had made his arrest a precondition to resuming accession negotiations with Croatia. Gotovina has pled not guilty to the war crimes charges levied by the Hague tribunal. News reports have indicated that Gotovina's lawyers may be planning to rest his defense on the American participation in the offensive. A recent addition to the Gotovina defense team, though, may alter that strategy. At the insistence of the Pentagon, the American lawyer Greg Kehoe will help defend Gotovina at his trial. If convicted, the former general who many in Croatia still consider a hero could face life in prison."
US Links to Croatian War Crime?
Der Spiegel, 23 January 2006

"The trial could prove embarrassing for Western intelligence services and regional governments if General Gotovina reveals how much support the Croatian military and intelligence services received from the West, especially the United States and the CIA. According to Hrvoje Sarinic, former chief of staff to President Tudjman, who also acted as his secret envoy to Milosevic, the CIA cooperated with General Gotovina and supplied intelligence-gathering equipment before Operation Storm."
Croat general Ante Gotovina stands trial for war crimes
London Times, 11 March 2008

"A Croatian general went into the dock at the war crimes tribunal for Yugoslavia in The Hague yesterday in a keenly awaited case that is effectively putting the Zagreb regime of the 1990s on trial for crimes against humanity in its war against the Serbs.In what is arguably the most important trial staged at the tribunal since Slobodan Milosevic died in custody in The Hague two years ago, General Ante Gotovina faces nine counts of war crimes and crimes against humanity. More than six years after Gotovina was secretly indicted, and four years after he went on the run from international justice, the trial of the 52-year-old former French legionnaire will open a window on the murky and ugly politics of the Balkans in the 1990s, as well as on the roles of the CIA, MI6, and the Pentagon....For the Croats the 72-hour blitz, named Operation Storm, was well-planned military brilliance that routed the Serb forces. Gotovina was a key commander of the operation that led to the Croatian victory. The US was closely involved in it; the CIA used spy planes to expose Serbian plans."
Croat general on trial for war crimes
Guardian, 12 March 2008

What Did The CIA's George Tenet
Know About The US Covert Operations In Yugoslavia? - Click Here

CIA Uses Belgian Arms Dealer To Supply Iranian Weapons To
Anti-Serb Forces In Croatia

"U.S. authorities say Jacques Monsieur, a swashbuckling 56-year-old known as 'the Fox' and 'the Field Marshal,' conspired with an undercover agent to buy engines and parts for F-5 fighter planes for Iran. Monsieur faces a six-count federal indictment, unsealed Wednesday, that includes charges of money laundering, smuggling and violating laws against exporting arms to Iran....In the last two years, U.S. investigators have gone after elusive kingpins of the arms trade who allegedly benefited for years from the protection of spy agencies. He has not yet been arraigned. Investigators arrested Monsieur last week while he was in New York on his way to France, where he lives, officials said. He becomes the latest in a string of high-rollers to fall victim to global undercover arms-trafficking operations by U.S. agents.... Monsieur, a suave veteran of Belgian military intelligence who breeds horses on a French estate, spent two decades doing business in war zones from the Balkans to Africa. His specialties are said to be light to medium arms and military aviation parts. He has run afoul of the law in Belgium, France and Iran, according to news reports. Many arms traffickers cultivate relationships with spy agencies, exchanging information for protection. In a rare interview with Radio France International in 2004, Monsieur insisted that his career was a cover for longtime work for Western intelligence services. He claimed in the interview that he had CIA approval when he ran guns to Croatia during the 1990s conflicts in the Balkans. He figured into a French scandal in which top officials were accused of arming African factions in deals involving kickbacks and oil. Since the 1980s, when his name came up in the Iran-Contra affair, he has specialized in supplying Iran, according to Alain Lallemand, a Belgian journalist who wrote an extensive report on Monsieur in 2002 for the International Consortium of Investigative Journalists, a branch of the nonprofit Center for Public Integrity....U.S. officials would not comment on Monsieur's past, including his alleged ties to the CIA or role in the Iran-Contra scandal."
Belgian arms trader jailed in Alabama
Los Angeles Times, 4 September 2009

"It has been reported in the Iranian capital, Tehran, that a Belgian citizen arrested on spying charges is a well known international arms dealer. .... informed sources have now confirmed press reports circulating in France and Belgium that the arrested man is a well known Belgian arms dealer, Jacques Monsieur.... Mr Monsieur was apparently no stranger to Iran - he is reported to have played a big role in exporting Iranian arms to Bosnia in the early 1990s as well as to other countries in Africa and elsewhere."
Belgian arms dealer held in Iran
BBC Online, 24 January 2001

"A certain company from Bratislava, Joy Slovakia, was Cappiau's main long-time connection, and it also served as a cover for a Belgian arms dealer, Jacques Monsieur. Monsieur, who is claimed by foreign news media to having smuggled over 650 tons of various weapons at the height of the war in the former Yugoslavia, on his part had numerous contacts with the Belgian, French, American and Israeli intelligence services, and his name was linked to many illegal arms deals with Iran, Congo-Brazzaville and Croatia."
Links between Organized Crime and Croatia's Top Brass
AIM, 16 April 2001

"48 years old, this former officer of the Belgian army [Jacques Monsieur] was of all the wars and all the traffics of weapons of these twenty last years. Before [his] arrest in Iran in November 2000, [he] was the subject of a judicial enquiry on behalf of French justice for deliveries of weapons in Croatia between 1991 and 1995 after the bursting of Yugoslavia. But to the French judge who questioned [him], [he] answered that [he] had the support of the French secret service in this business.... after the end of the war Iran-Iraq (1988) and the bursting of the USSR and Yugoslavia, [he] started to deliver weapons, in particular Iranian, with the Croats and later with the Bosnians. In 1991, the United Nations issued an embargo on the sales of weapons to the belligerents of ex-Yugoslavia. 'I was contacted in Brussels by an agent of the CIA to organize this operation and to deliver weapons to the anti-Serb forces', [he] declared."
[Google Translation From Original French]
Jacques Monsieur condemned in Iran
RFI Actualite, [Date not indicated - Dec 2001?]

"After 18 months spent behind the bars of an Iranian prison, the merchant of weapons Jacques Mister left Teheran. Destination: Brussels.... In Brussels, Jacques Mister was already judged with the last autumn for related facts with his activity. A judgment by default (imprisoned in Teheran, [he] could not answer the convocation of the court) which opens the way with a new lawsuit, in front of the same jurisdiction..... This man impassioned by the horses Lusitanians could then tell the lower parts and the springs of the traffic of weapons. … How [he] settled in France, in 1992, to organize the deliveries of Iranian weapons to the Bosnian soldiers and Croatian during the conflict of Balkans… "
[Google Translation From Original French]
Jacques  Monsieur judged soon in Europe
RFI Actualite, 18 May 2002

"Believed to be among the biggest arms traffickers in Europe, [Jacques] Monsieur had violated a United Nations embargo by shipping arms to Bosnia and Croatia during the long bloody conflict in those countries, with the approval, he later claimed, of both the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and the Direction de Surveillance de Territoire (DST), the French domestic intelligence service.... In September 2000, Monsieur told a French judge of having been contacted in 1991 in Brussels by the CIA, and, with the blessing of the French DST, of having sent tens of millions of dollars of weapons to Croatia. From 1991 to 1995, he found his best markets in Croatia and Bosnia, even though the two countries were under a United Nations embargo..... Another French magistrate, who is well versed in the Croatian trafficking case, said it was a political operation. 'A decision from on high led, in 1995, to the cancellation of a fourth wave of weapons deliveries to former Yugoslavia,' implying that French authorities had tacitly approved the prior three 'waves' of weapons shipments."
The Field Marshal
The Centre For Public Integrity, 15 November 2002

"Belgian arms trafficker Jacques Monsieur appeared in a Brussels court on 12 November, Brussels' 'Le Soir' reported two days later. A long-time supplier of Iran's who held an Iranian diplomatic passport, he was arrested in Tehran in November 2000 (see 'RFE/RL Iran Report,' 27 September 1999 and 14 May 2001). The hearing in Brussels confirmed Tehran's provision to Croatia and Bosnia of artillery shells, white phosphorous, and other military goods via Monsieur..."
Belgian Arms Trial Reveals Iranian Connection
RFE/RL Newsline, 15 November 2002

"I had relationships to certain American [intelligence] services. But I prefer not to specify it..... The mandate of the soldiers of UNO and NATO sent was very restrictive. They had just a mandate of observation, even not a mandate of response. Therefore, it was decided to help them. [I] was thus organized an appointment with president Tudjman, whom I did not know. We made a review of the military situation, equipment of which laid out the adversary, the Serb ones, and of all the lacks of the new Croatian army. Afterwards, I submitted my reports/ratios, I transmitted to the appropriate authority and then one studied what one could do. I organized a series of military deliveries of materials, in Croatia initially, then in Bosnia. There was of all: equipment, ammunition, armament..... In Croatia, the supplies were done mainly by sea, therefore it was consequent, yes. For Bosnia, the deliveries were done by air.... First, at the time where the war burst only in Croatia, UNO had issued a naval blockade in all the Adriatic Sea. Thus it was practically impossible to have access to a Croatian or Yugoslav port without passing by this blockade with all that that implied: controls at sea Adriatic, monitoring in the Yugoslav ports… Therefore, indeed, without a certain 'green light' it was impossible to convey these materials over there on the spot."
[Google Translation From Original French]
Confessions of a merchant of weapons (Interview with Jacques Monsieur)
RFI Actualite, 6 December 2004

"In the Eighties, Jacques Monsieur affirms to have accomplished many voyages in the Eastern European countries.... At the time of the conflict in ex-Yugoslavia, 1992 to 1995, [he] is again that which implements the double game of the policy of the Western allies, while equipping with the belligerents normally subjected to an embargo of UNO.... [His] Team [includes] Jean-Bernard Lasnaud: correspondent of Jacques Monsieur installed close to Miami in Florida. This French, very known on the market of the armament, seems to profit from a direct protection of the CIA.... James Marty Cappiau: former Belgian parachutist, reconverted into private safety, after having been useful in the rows of the Croatian army."
[Google Translation From Original French]
The device of Jacques Mister
RFI Actualite, 6 December 2004

"At 51 years, Jacques Monsieur leaves his silence and speaks about his activity about merchant about weapons. French justice with [his]cases, the man lives in Belgium where it benefits from a bail. For [his] defense [he] ensures that the traffic of weapons was only one cover for activities of espionage to the profit of Western services of information [i.e. western intelligence] ..... Refined and polyglot, the agent Monsieur would have initially worked for the SGR, the military secret service Belgian, while being supervised by the American services on which [he] refuses to be more precise. The nature even of the operations of which [he] participle lets think that the CIA is not foreign with [his] activities. In particular at the time of Irangate (supply of weapons in Iran by the Americans in full Iran-Iraq war and whereas Washington and Teheran are with drawn knives). In this context, the pecuniary motivation of the services is not to exclude, because the values of the tenders concerned are colossal. Certain services of information could engage these operations to finance their own clandestine activities or to weaken the enemy....Beyond the principles, the way in which the intermediary circumvents the embargoes or the devices legal into force shows that such an activity cannot be considered without the active complicity of the military authorities. The supply of weapons and ammunition in Croatia and Bosnia is the example more completed. Whereas UNO and the forces of NATO impose a naval blockade Adriatique at sea, several cargo liners deliver their goods directly in Croatian ports. For Bosnia, the deliveries are carried out by Iliouchine cargo aircrafts being posed on airports theoretically controlled by the blue helmets! Consequently, difficult not to give a certain credit to the assumption of the 'amber light' (semi-official agreement) granted by the secret service."
[Google Translation From Original French]
Jacques Monsieur says 'the Fox': merchant of weapons and spy?
RFI Actualite, 6 December 2004

"A retired U.S. Air Force colonel charged in the 1980s in an Iran-Contra related weapons smuggling case has been indicted in a U.S. federal court in Miami with conspiring with an Israeli aeronautics engineer to illegally export 2,000 AK-47s to Somalia [from Bosnia].... O’Toole , then described as a Santa Ana-based aviation consultant, was charged in 1989 with conspiring with a controversial Israeli self-described former Mossad agent, Ari Ben-Menashe, and a Connecticut resident Richard St. Francis, with trying to sell three U.S. C-130 air cargo planes to Iran. But the charges against O’Toole were dropped in 1991 during the first Gulf War. Beginning in April, according to the indictment, Miller and O’Toole conspired to obtain and transport hundreds of AK-47s from Bosnia to the northern Somalian city of Banderal, using false end user certificates of Chad, in violation of U.S. arms export control laws. Somalia is under a U.N. arms embargo. But the transport services source they contacted turned out to be an informant for the U.S. Customs and Immigrations Enforcement (ICE) agency, the indictment describes. 'On April 15, 2010, O’Toole sent an email to an Immigrations and Customs Enforcement confidential informant (hereafter CI) and asked if CI had Antonov 12 or similar line [aircraft] available for two charter flights from Bosnia to Africa to lift 12 tons on each flight for two round trips, landing in Africa 'to unload mil equipments' and return to Bosnia for a second trip,' the indictment reads. 'On April 21, 2010, O’Toole sent an email to the CI and advised the CI that the cargo would be Boxed AK-47s, 6 to 7.6 tons, and that the CI could choose to use AN26 or AN12 aircraft from Tuzla Bosnia to Banderal, Northern Somalia and that payment would be made by wire transfer or cash before departure.' 'On April 21, 2010, O’Toole sent an email to the CI and advised that he has enough cargo for 100 flights if the first flight is successful.'”
Iran-Contra colonel in gun-run case
Politico, 28 June 2010

"In view of the US covert support to the Croats it will be interesting to see if the International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in the Hague will seriously investigate this matter."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

"British and American special forces teams are working undercover in Kosovo with the rebel Kosovo Liberation Army to identify Serbian targets for Nato bombing raids.....It is the latest evidence of the growing co-operation between Nato and the KLA, a movement once denounced by the West's leaders as 'terrorists'...... The alliance is now quietly drafting the KLA into its war against Slobodan Milosevic, the Serbian leader. It is even considering plans to train them and ease the arms embargo on Yugoslavia to supply them with weapons such as mortars and rocket-propelled grenades.... They are negotiating for a long-term training deal with Military and Professional Resources International, a mercenary company run by former American officers who operate with semi-official approval from the Pentagon and played a key role in building up Croatia's armed forces..."
SAS teams move in to help KLA 'rise from the ashes'
Sunday Telegraph, 18 April 1999

"The US government’s favourite private security service has trained both sides in the latest ethnic flare-up in the Balkans. Only two years ago the rag-tag Kosovar Albanian rebels were taken in hand by the Virginia-based company of professional soldiers, Military Professional Resources Incorporated. An outfit of former US marines, helicopter pilots and special forces teams, MPRI’s missions for the US government have run from flying Colombian helicopter gunships to supplying weapons to the Croatian army...."
Private US firm training both sides in Balkans
The Scotsman, March 02, 2001

"Ceku officially remained in the Croatian army, in which he has been decorated, until the beginning of this year. As an ethnic Albanian, he has long had links to the KLA, however. Last month he was appointed head of the Kosovo Protection Corps (TMK), a lightly armed civilian force of 5,000 members created from the KLA, with the blessing of the Lieutenant-General Sir Mike Jackson.... Sources familiar with the investigation into Ceku said the most serious crimes with which he had been linked were committed in the so-called Medak pocket of Krajina in 1993..... American diplomats, who have been the most supportive of the creation of the TMK, have suggested any indictment of Ceku would most likely be 'sealed' and thereby kept out of the public domain.... Another diplomat said he believed Kfor, the Nato-led peacekeeping force, could not contemplate a public relations disaster with the Albanians by arresting Ceku."
Kosovo defence chief accused of war crimes
Sunday Times, 10 October 1999

"... Now we have the full story of the secret alliance between the Pentagon and radical Islamist groups from the Middle East designed to assist the Bosnian Muslims... in flagrant violation of the UN security council arms embargo against all combatants in the former Yugoslavia. The result was a vast secret conduit of weapons smuggling though Croatia. This was arranged by the clandestine agencies of the US, Turkey and Iran, together with a range of radical Islamist groups, including Afghan mojahedin and the pro-Iranian Hizbullah...."
America used Islamists to arm the Bosnian Muslims
Guardian, 22 April 2002

"Ceku is the former Military Chief of Staff of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and the man handpicked by the US to head the KPC [Kosovo Protection Corps] .... Ceku [is] one of the top 'ethnic cleansers' in the Balkans, alongside Bosnian Serb leaders Radovan Karadzic and Ratko Mladic. Ceku refined his brutality as a general in the US-backed Croatian Army during the Balkan war and was trained by Military Professional Resources Inc., a private paramilitary firm founded in 1987 and based in Alexandria, Virginia with former high-ranking US generals and NATO officials on its board. These officers include the former Commanders in Chief of the US Army in Europe and US Central Command, the Supreme Allied Commander-Atlantic and the former US Representative to the NATO Military Committee. In 1994, armed with a contract authorized by the Clinton Administration, MPRI officially began to train Croatian forces. Just months after MPRI arrived on the scene, Croatian forces carried out the notorious Operation Storm. In a brutal four-day blitzkrieg in 1995, these forces expelled some 200,000 Serbs from the Krajina region of Croatia after their villages were mercilessly shelled. Jane's Defense Weekly reported that Ceku was 'one of the key planners' of the operation that the New York Times called 'the largest single 'ethnic cleansing' of the war'..."
Washington's Men In Kosovo
Common Dreams, 19 July 2000

"When the Croatian military, in a highly effective offensive called Operation Storm, captured the Serb-held Krajina enclave later that year, there were suspicions that MPRI instructors must have been directly involved. The operation played a key role in reversing the tide of war against the Serbs and, consistent with American policy, in bringing both sides to the negotiating table. But the same Croatian military was subsequently implicated in uprooting more than 150,000 Serbs from their homes.... critics charge that the help MPRI provided the Croatians may have allowed the U. S. to secretly influence events in the war while maintaining its neutral posture and without sending U. S. troops, advisors or trainers. 'MPRI had all these different meetings with top Croatian defense officials right before the offensive. It's inconceivable that they did not have some kind of impact,' said one military analyst who has followed the company's involvement in the Balkans. 'It was followed by massive ethnic cleansing. Now, had American troops been on the ground, we would have been held accountable for that. The fact that it was a private company made the connection a lot less clear.'..."
U.S. Companies Hired to Train Foreign Armies
Los Angeles Times, 14 April 2002

"The clandestine arms supplies were therefore of greater importance to the Croats and the Bosnian Muslims. The training and the supplying of arms, for example, simplified the Croatian operations in the Krajina in mid 1995. Alongside secret arms supplies, the company MPRI provided training.... By engaging this company, Washington at the same time also reduced the danger of 'direct' involvement. The operation resulted in the killing of more than 500 civilians and the exodus of more than 150.000 ethic Serbs from the Krajina. In view of the US covert support to the Croats it will be interesting to see if the International War Crimes Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia in The Hague will seriously investigate this matter."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 – 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions

Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

"In 1995, Gen.Ceku was a player in Operation Storm, a covert Clinton-backed and MPRI-trained Croatian military operation that ethnically cleansed 200,000 Serbs from their homes in Croatia, killing thousands of civilians. Since taking over the KLA, Ceku has purged all of its moderates."
Defang the KLA
WorldNetDaily, 11 June 1999

"United Nations sources have already revealed that Agim Ceku, the guerrillas' former commander, may be the subject of a secret 'sealed' indictment for his activities while fighting for the Croatian army against the Serbs.... The investigation could radically alter the international perception of the conflict, in which Albanians were seen as the largely innocent victims of Serbian aggression. After a year of growing concern about hundreds of revenge killings of Serbs by Albanians in the province, there are signs that the public relations pendulum may begin to swing the Serbs' way. The investigations by the International War Crimes Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia are among its most secretive, with officials fearing retaliation by the Albanians. 'The operations of the KLA clearly involved many activities we should scrutinise,' said one Hague official."
KLA faces trials for war crimes on Serbs
Sunday Times, 3 September 2000

"Americans in military uniform, operating from a cream-colored trailer near the runway, directed the GNAT-750 drone to photograph Serb troop positions and weapons emplacements. The images were transmitted back to base, analyzed and then passed on to the Pentagon. According to top Croat intelligence officials, copies were also sent to the headquarters of the Croatian general in command of 'Operation Storm.'... Now the successful CIA operation is about to become defense exhibit A in a war-crimes case at The Hague tribunal. Last month prosecutors announced the indictment of General Gotovina for atrocities committed during and after Operation Storm, including the murder of 150 Krajina Serbs, the forced displacement of as many as 200,000 others and the torching of thousands of homes.... Now a NEWSWEEK investigation has shown that U.S. intelligence cooperation with Croatia went far deeper than Washington has ever acknowledged. According to Miro Tudjman, son of the late president Franjo Tudjman and head of the Croatian counterpart to the CIA in the mid-1990s, the United States provided encryption gear to each of Croatia's regular Army brigades. He says the CIA also spent at least $10 million on Croatian listening posts to intercept telephone calls in Bosnia and Serbia. 'All our [electronic] intelligence in Croatia went online in real time to the National Security Agency in Washington,' says Tudjman. 'We had a de facto partnership.' American officials familiar with intelligence issues confirm that the CIA operated drones from a base near Zadar on the Adriatic coast, during and after Operation Storm... And the country's former intelligence chiefs have decided to speak out about their ties to the United States as a way of vouching for Gotovina's innocence. 'I always said that the only people in Croatia who know everything are the Americans,' says Markica Rebic, the former head of military intelligence. When Gotovina stands trial, some of those Americans may be asked to testify about their country's role in an ugly conflict."
What Did the CIA Know?
NEWSWEEK, 21 August 2001

"The Croatian World Congress sent a letter last week demanding that Carla Del Ponte, the chief prosecutor of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY), open a criminal investigation into Mr. Clinton and other top officials of his administration [including current Director of the CIA George Tenet] for 'aiding and abetting indicted Croatian Gen. Ante Gotovina in a 1995 Croatian military operation known as ´Operation Storm.´... Secretly supported by the Clinton administration, Croatian forces launched a massive three-day military offensive - known as 'Operation Storm' - on Aug. 4, 1995, in which Croatia recovered territories occupied by rebel Serbs following Zagreb´s drive for independence from Yugoslavia in 1991.... The Croatian World Congress said the U.S. administration gave the green light for the operation and provided diplomatic and political support for it."
Balkans tribunal turns to Clinton
Washington Times, 8 July 2002

"Croatia said yesterday that it had frozen the assets of General Ante Gotovina, No 3 on the most-wanted list of the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia. His case threatens to derail the country’s attempt to join the EU. The move apparently came in response to widespread anger over the repeated and deliberate sabotaging by Croatian officials of efforts by Western intelligence services to find General Gotovina. Information has been leaked from the Croatian Government, helping the general to remain at large.... General Gotovina, 49, commanded Operation Storm in August 1995, when Croatian forces, newly armed and trained by American advisers and private military contractors, recaptured almost all of Serb-occupied territory in three days. Tens of thousands of civilians fled their homes, at least 150 were killed and hundreds more disappeared, while Croatian forces plundered and looted at will. The Croatians say that the West’s tough stand smacks of hypocrisy. Operation Storm had the support of the United States and Europe."
Croatia acts against fugitive 'hero'
London Times, 15 March 2005

What Did The CIA's George Tenet
Know About The US Covert Operations In Yugoslavia? - Click Here

"The complaint filed today [by the Croatian World Congress] alleges that the US officials aided Gen. Gotovina and the Croatian Army ('HV') in Operation Storm by violating a UN arms embargo and allowing Croatia to obtain weapons...US officials established a CIA base inside of Gen. Gotovina's military base which provided the US officials with real-time video footage of events transpiring on the ground during Operation Storm (and thus imputing to them knowledge of events on the ground), but also from which they could provide such intelligence data to General Gotovina to assist him in conducting Operation Storm.  If General Gotovina carried out a pre-planned campaign to deport 150,000 to 200,000 Croatian Serb civilians, then the CIA base was not only used to provide knowledge to US officials of such a plan and course of conduct on the part of General Gotovina, but was also used to assist General Gotovina in achieving the goals of his alleged plan.  The US officials gave the green light for the Operation and provided diplomatic and political support for it.  The US officials at all times had the ability to halt the military operation.  Accordingly, the US officials named in the complaint should be indicted for having aided and abetted General Gotovina."
CROATIAN WORLD CONGRESS FILES COMPLAINT WITH HAGUE PROSECUTOR DEL PONTE TO INVESTIGATE US OFFICIALS, INCLUDING WILLIAM JEFFERSON CLINTON
Croatian World Congress, Press Release, 4 July 2002

"The battle in question--Operation Storm--was vetted and approved by US leaders up to Clinton himself, according to a complaint submitted by the Croatian World Congress to Carla del Ponte, the tribunal's chief prosecutor. US forces even provided secret military aid, charged the CWC. Thus 'evenhanded justice' requires that Clinton stand in the dock shoulder to shoulder with Gotovina, said the group's complaint. It's unlikely that UN security troops will be marching a handcuffed ex-President out of his Harlem offices any time soon. The Hague prosecutor's office simply filed the complaint without comment."
Disorder in the Court
Air Force Magazine Online (US), October 2002, Vol 85, No 10

"President Mesic of Croatia is promising that his Government will co-operate fully in trials of Croatians accused of atrocities during its independence war.... The country’s relations with Europe have also become stronger in recent years, as evidence of alleged American involvement in the ruthless campaign to drive Serbs from the region has begun to emerge.... 200,000 Serbs [were] driven from the Krajina region during the 1995 Croatian offensive.... Croatia, however, cannot arrest the most wanted Croatian, General Ante Gotovina, because he is hiding in neighbouring Bosnia.... Another major obstacle is American concern that if General Gotovina is arrested he may carry out a threat to disclose the previously unknown extent of US covert involvement in the Krajina offensive...."
Croatia in pledge to help war crime trials
London Times, 14 June 2003

"Mr. Dujic hasn't set foot in the small two-story home in this railroad town since he and thousands of other ethnic Serbs fled a Croatian army onslaught called 'Operation Storm' in 1995. A city document confirms that he owns the building, but the ethnic Croatians occupying it won't budge, and Croatian officials refuse to evict them. 'I have no country except this one, and it doesn't want me,' says Mr. Dujic, a 69-year-old former hotel manager, breaking into tears at a sidewalk cafe near his house. 'I was a manager. I always had some money,' he says. 'Now I have to crawl around here like a dog.' Former co-worker Tatjana Grgic, an ethnic Croatian who works in the Red Cross office here, says Mr. Dujic was no Serb nationalist. 'He was a good man,' she says. 'But the war has done what it has done. It's a normal thing.' Normal in the Balkans, perhaps. To Western countries, banishing ethnic minorities from a region is officially abhorrent. The North Atlantic Treaty Organization has responded to Serbia's 'ethnic cleansing' of Albanian minorities in the Serbian province of Kosovo with a punishing, four-week bombing campaign. The U.S. vows to return an estimated 600,000 Kosovo refugees to their homes. The experience of Croatia, Serbia's next-door neighbor, suggests that a massive return is a pipe dream. Croatia, which split from the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia in 1991, has welcomed back fewer than 20% of its 350,000 departed Serbs. Almost all the returnees are elderly people wanting to claim pensions or be buried with their parents. Serbs are 'free to come,' says Croatia's assistant foreign minister, Josip Paro. But while proclaiming that policy, Croatia encouraged ethnic Croatians to occupy Serb homes and stalled thousands of Serbs trying to get Croatian citizenship or reclaim their property. Now, it is helping Serbs unload their homes at a steep discount, and is building houses for ethnic Croat refugees in formerly Serb villages. 'It's a slow, bureaucratic ethnic cleansing,' charges Ivan Zvonimir Cicak, a Croatian opposition figure and humanrights activist. Ethnic cleansing tends to stick, and not only because of government policy. Younger Serbs have made new lives in Yugoslavia or in the Serbian-run section of Bosnia, another former Yugoslav republic. Others have emigrated to richer Western countries, or hope to keep their chances of emigration alive by preserving their refugee status. By some estimates, half of those who fled Croatia will never try to return. Many Croatians, convinced that 'war criminals' are coming back, predict trouble from returning Serbs. 'I think they should be eliminated,' says a Croatian soldier and Operation Storm participant who identifies himself only as Ante, drinking a beer during a rock concert in Knin to benefit war widows. Human-rights activists say several returning Serbs in a nearby village have been killed by fresh mines planted in haystacks. Even some liberals wonder if separation is best. 'We tried one way and it didn't work,' says Zagreb architect Nikola Oreskovic, in a bus rolling past Croat villages destroyed by Serbs and Serb villages destroyed by Croats. 'Maybe we should try another way.' Ethnic cleansing, horrible as it is, can be effective. Republika Srpska, an almost completely Serb ministate within Bosnia, has enjoyed relative tranquillity and growing international acceptance, while tensions are rising between Muslims and Croats who live side by side in Bosnia. Croatia is poor but secure, and when it opened its airspace to NATO for the current bombing raids, the U.S. lifted an arms embargo, despite lingering concerns about Operation Storm. That operation was 'the most efficient ethnic cleansing we've seen in the Balkans,' says Carl Bildt, former European Community mediator in the Balkans. 'There was a blinking yellow light given to it in 1995, and there hasn't really been any sustained international pressure to reverse it.' One of the few critics of the operation, he says acquiescing to ethnic separation would be 'horrifying' because the Balkans' ethnic patchwork is so complex. Croatia denies any ethnic cleansing, noting that it urged Serbs to stay put during Operation Storm. But soldiers also shelled residential areas, killed civilians and let Croats burn and plunder Serb homes, according to a United Nations report. Many intact homes in Knin still bear the painted words 'Croat-Don't Touch.' Serbs came here to the Krajina region in the 14th century, when the Turks routed them from Kosovo. The Austro-Hungarian empire gave the Serbs of Krajina (the name means 'frontier') free land in exchange for defending the empire's eastern border from the Turks. Serbs became the city dwellers, and the majority in their region, despite Croatian fascists' attempts to exterminate Serbs during World War II. Krajina Serbs broke into armed rebellion in 1991 as Yugoslavia collapsed, and Knin, with its ancient hilltop fortress, became the capital of the Republic of Serbian Krajina. The republic lasted four years and fell in four days. Knin's Serbs had just minutes to pack on Aug. 5, 1995, when their army warned them to leave. Many thought they would be back within a few days. Mr. Dujic says he was at his cousin's house at a nearby village. He had no time to drive back to Knin to grab the family jewelry. Instead, he and his relatives took his son's car, which had the most gas, and drove to Belgrade, capital of Yugoslavia in the Republic of Serbia. The flight of about 200,000 Krajina Serbs set off an ethnic chain reaction. Many refugees pushed east into Serb-held territory in Bosnia. In the city of Banja Luka, Josipu Guroljevski, an ethnic Croat, says Serbs pounded on his door Aug. 16 and told him to leave the following morning or die. He and his wife, Stazji, spent a month as refugees before hearing of empty houses in Knin. Croatia gave citizenship to any ethnic Croatian, and eventually 6,000 Croatians from Bosnia would settle in and around Knin. The Guroljevskis say they went to City Hall and got a list of available houses. Mr. Dujic's house was in the best repair, with room for relatives upstairs. The furniture was overturned, the rooms looted and humid; but after painting and repair, the house became the Guroljevski's home, with an official occupancy permit. A Virgin Mary hangs on the wall. Potted plants sit outside the door....The Krajina region seems in little danger of going Serb. Before the war, 11% of the citizens in the Knin municipality were Croats. Now Knin is half the size, and 71% Croat. Streets have new Croatian names. At the police station, where a dozen elderly Serbs line up each morning to get documents signed, all the officers are Croats. Serbian staff members were cleared from the hospital and schools as well, and replaced with Croats from Bosnia, says Knin economist and activist Nevena Zunjic."
Daniel Pearl - Few Serbs Chased From Croatia In 1995 Have Made It Back Home
Wall St Journal, 22 April 1999

"For years, Saudi Arabia flatly denied it had provided money and logistical support for Islamist militant groups that attacked Western targets. But that assertion is disputed by a former al-Qaeda commander who testified in a United Nations war-crimes trial that his unit was funded by the Saudi High Commission for Relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ali Ahmed Ali Hamad, the former al-Qaeda fighter, gave the same account to The Inquirer in an interview in this struggling city in the central Balkans.  'Because it was the biggest charity, [the commission] helped the mujaheddin the most,' Hamad said, adding that it had provided 'everything a person needed to exist.' Hamad, 37, is expected to be called as a witness in a lawsuit filed by Cozen O'Connor alleging that Saudi Arabia and affiliated charities financed al-Qaeda and other groups as they geared up for the 9/11 attacks. As a convicted terrorist, Hamad is an imperfect witness. During the Balkans war, from 1992 to 1995, jihadists from North Africa and the Middle East were accused of atrocities against indigenous Serbs and Croatians. Hamad admits having done 'bad things' as an al-Qaeda fighter, and he is serving a 10-year sentence in a Bosnian jail for his role in a 1997 Mostar bombing. Yet Hamad's account of his time in the Balkans went largely uncontroverted during the U.N. trial, where he was a prosecution witness. He contends that the Saudi High Commission, an agency of the Saudi government, and other Islamist charities supported al-Qaeda-led units that committed atrocities. Mujaheddin units, he said, recruited fighters, prepared for battle, and financed their operations in the Balkans. He said the Saudi High Commission had poured tens of millions of dollars into mujaheddin units led by al-Qaeda operatives who fought with Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. Money intended for humanitarian relief bought weapons and other military supplies. The charities also provided false identification, employment papers, diplomatic plates and vehicles that permitted Islamist fighters to enter the country and pass easily through military checkpoints, Hamad said. Several charity offices, including those of the Saudi High Commission, were led by former mujaheddin or al-Qaeda members, at least one of whom trained with Hamad in an al-Qaeda camp in Afghanistan, he said. Like other al-Qaeda fighters, Hamad said, he was an employee of the Saudi High Commission for a time and traveled through the war zone in commission vehicles with diplomatic plates."
A former al-Qaeda fighter accuses a Saudi charity
Philadelphia Inquirer, 31 May 2008

"A former Al-Qaeda member and Bosnian mujahedin is seeking asylum in Serbia after being released from jail in Bosnia-Herzegovina, RFE/RL's South Slavic and Albanian Languages Service reports.   Ali Ahmed Ali Hamad, a native of Bahrain, was recently released from a Bosnian prison where he served a 12-year term for robbery and terrorism. A veteran of the 1992-95 Bosnian war, Ali Hamad has promised to tell Serbian officials about crimes that were committed against Serbs and Croats by mujahedin units in exchange for asylum.  Serbian war crimes unit spokesman Bruno Vekaric says that he is interested in listening to Ali Hamad. Ali Hamad has told local media that he is a reformed terrorist who is ready to help 'fight terrorism.' He is waiting in Lukavica, Serbia, for a decision on whether he will be extradited to Bahrain or given asylum."
Former Al-Qaeda Member, Bosnian Fighter Seeks Asylum In Serbia
Radio Free Europe, 14 January 2009

"Since the beginning of the war in the spring of 1992, Bosnian Serbs, supported by Serbia, bombarded the town [of Mostar] from the mountains overlooking it. A year later, in May 1993, the Croatian militias of the separatist 'Herzeg-Bosna' movement, supported by Croatia, turned against their Muslim allies, chased them out of the western part of the town and forced them into a small area of a few square kilometers. Thus was created an enclave squeezed between the Serbian and Croatian fronts."
20 Years Later: The Bosnian Conflict in Photographs
TIME, 5 April 2012


3. US Backed Terrorism In Bosnia

"The Central Intelligence Agency has its own argot for describing the hallucinatory world within which its employees move. None of its esoteric terms are more euphemistic than 'blowback', the term coined to describe operations which end up rebounding against their creators. But as the Americans slowly unravel the international network surrounding Osama bin Laden, the man they blame for the embassy bombings in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam, 'blowback' is exactly what they are finding.  Last week, it was revealed that one of those under arrest is a former Egyptian soldier named Ali Mohamed, who is alleged to have provided training and assistance to Mr bin Laden's operatives. Yet Mr Mohamed, it is clear from his record, was working for the US government at the time he provided the training: he was a Green Beret, part of America's Special Forces....   It had already been known that in those days, the US and Mr bin Laden were on the same side, but it now appears that America may actually have aided Mr bin Laden's organisation and even trained some of those who it now contends are 'terrorists'. Mr Ali may be the missing link. It had already been known that in 1989, Mr Ali came to the New York area to train mujahedin on their way to Afghanistan. Those visits have put him in the spotlight once before: among those he trained was El Sayyid Nosair, who was jailed in 1995 for killing Rabbi Meir Kahane, leader of the Jewish Defence League, and, along with several others, with plotting to blow up several New York landmarks. At his trial, Mr Nosair claimed that the reason he had military manuals was that he was being trained by the US, not because he was intent on terrorism. It is uncertain whether Mr Mohamed came to New York on official business, but for some of the trips, he was a serving US Special Forces' sergeant. Mr Mohamed met the men at the Al-Kifah Refugee Centre in Brooklyn's Atlantic Avenue, a place of pivotal importance to Operation Cyclone, the American effort to support the mujahedin. The Al-Kifah Centre and the associated Afghan Refugee Services Inc were raising funds and, crucially, providing recruits for the struggle, with active American assistance....  In December 1992, a US army official met one of the Afghan veterans from Al-Kifah and offered help with a covert operation to support the Muslims in Bosnia, funded with Saudi money, according to one of those jailed for assisting with the New York bombings."
Terror 'blowback' burns CIA
Independent, 1 November 1998

"... it was the covert arming and training of the Bosnians by the US, in breach of the UN arms embargo resolution, that was responsible for prolonging the suffering of the people of Bosnia. For Izetbegovic's government was thereby persuaded to abandon the UN peace process and not to sign up to various UN-brokered peace proposals on offer, such as those I helped broker in 1994. The correct lesson to draw from the war in Bosnia with regards to Syria is that arming any of the warring parties, however just may seem their cause, inevitably increases the intensity of conflict. "
General Sir Michael Rose, Commander, UN Forces, Bosnia 1994
Letter - London Times, 16 April 2013, Print Edition, P29

CIA Uses Belgian Arms Dealer To Supply Iranian Weapons To
Islamic Militants In Bosnia

"It has been reported in the Iranian capital, Tehran, that a Belgian citizen arrested on spying charges is a well known international arms dealer. .... informed sources have now confirmed press reports circulating in France and Belgium that the arrested man is a well known Belgian arms dealer, Jacques Monsieur.... Mr Monsieur was apparently no stranger to Iran - he is reported to have played a big role in exporting Iranian arms to Bosnia in the early 1990s as well as to other countries in Africa and elsewhere."
Belgian arms dealer held in Iran
BBC Online, 24 January 2001

"A certain company from Bratislava, Joy Slovakia, was Cappiau's main long-time connection, and it also served as a cover for a Belgian arms dealer, Jacques Monsieur. Monsieur, who is claimed by foreign news media to having smuggled over 650 tons of various weapons at the height of the war in the former Yugoslavia, on his part had numerous contacts with the Belgian, French, American and Israeli intelligence services, and his name was linked to many illegal arms deals with Iran, Congo-Brazzaville and Croatia."
Links between Organized Crime and Croatia's Top Brass
AIM, 16 April 2001

"48 years old, this former officer of the Belgian army [Jacques Monsieur] was of all the wars and all the traffics of weapons of these twenty last years. Before [his] arrest in Iran in November 2000, [he] was the subject of a judicial enquiry on behalf of French justice for deliveries of weapons in Croatia between 1991 and 1995 after the bursting of Yugoslavia. But to the French judge who questioned [him], [he] answered that [he] had the support of the French secret service in this business.... after the end of the war Iran-Iraq (1988) and the bursting of the USSR and Yugoslavia, [he] started to deliver weapons, in particular Iranian, with the Croats and later with the Bosnians. In 1991, the United Nations issued an embargo on the sales of weapons to the belligerents of ex-Yugoslavia. 'I was contacted in Brussels by an agent of the CIA to organize this operation and to deliver weapons to the anti-Serb forces', [he] declared."
[Google Translation From Original French]
Jacques Monsieur condemned in Iran
RFI Actualite, [Date not indicated - Dec 2001?]

"After 18 months spent behind the bars of an Iranian prison, the merchant of weapons Jacques Mister left Teheran. Destination: Brussels.... In Brussels, Jacques Mister was already judged with the last autumn for related facts with his activity. A judgment by default (imprisoned in Teheran, [he] could not answer the convocation of the court) which opens the way with a new lawsuit, in front of the same jurisdiction..... This man impassioned by the horses Lusitanians could then tell the lower parts and the springs of the traffic of weapons. … How [he] settled in France, in 1992, to organize the deliveries of Iranian weapons to the Bosnian soldiers and Croatian during the conflict of Balkans… "
[Google Translation From Original French]
Jacques  Monsieur judged soon in Europe
RFI Actualite, 18 May 2002

"Believed to be among the biggest arms traffickers in Europe, [Jacques] Monsieur had violated a United Nations embargo by shipping arms to Bosnia and Croatia during the long bloody conflict in those countries, with the approval, he later claimed, of both the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency and the Direction de Surveillance de Territoire (DST), the French domestic intelligence service.... In September 2000, Monsieur told a French judge of having been contacted in 1991 in Brussels by the CIA, and, with the blessing of the French DST, of having sent tens of millions of dollars of weapons to Croatia. From 1991 to 1995, he found his best markets in Croatia and Bosnia, even though the two countries were under a United Nations embargo..... Another French magistrate, who is well versed in the Croatian trafficking case, said it was a political operation. 'A decision from on high led, in 1995, to the cancellation of a fourth wave of weapons deliveries to former Yugoslavia,' implying that French authorities had tacitly approved the prior three 'waves' of weapons shipments."
The Field Marshal
The Centre For Public Integrity, 15 November 2002

"Belgian arms trafficker Jacques Monsieur appeared in a Brussels court on 12 November, Brussels' 'Le Soir' reported two days later. A long-time supplier of Iran's who held an Iranian diplomatic passport, he was arrested in Tehran in November 2000 (see 'RFE/RL Iran Report,' 27 September 1999 and 14 May 2001). The hearing in Brussels confirmed Tehran's provision to Croatia and Bosnia of artillery shells, white phosphorous, and other military goods via Monsieur..."
Belgian Arms Trial Reveals Iranian Connection
RFE/RL Newsline, 15 November 2002

"I had relationships to certain American [intelligence] services. But I prefer not to specify it..... The mandate of the soldiers of UNO and NATO sent was very restrictive. They had just a mandate of observation, even not a mandate of response. Therefore, it was decided to help them. [I] was thus organized an appointment with president Tudjman, whom I did not know. We made a review of the military situation, equipment of which laid out the adversary, the Serb ones, and of all the lacks of the new Croatian army. Afterwards, I submitted my reports/ratios, I transmitted to the appropriate authority and then one studied what one could do. I organized a series of military deliveries of materials, in Croatia initially, then in Bosnia. There was of all: equipment, ammunition, armament..... In Croatia, the supplies were done mainly by sea, therefore it was consequent, yes. For Bosnia, the deliveries were done by air.... First, at the time where the war burst only in Croatia, UNO had issued a naval blockade in all the Adriatic Sea. Thus it was practically impossible to have access to a Croatian or Yugoslav port without passing by this blockade with all that that implied: controls at sea Adriatic, monitoring in the Yugoslav ports… Therefore, indeed, without a certain 'green light' it was impossible to convey these materials over there on the spot."
[Google Translation From Original French]
Confessions of a merchant of weapons (Interview with Jacques Monsieur)
RFI Actualite, 6 December 2004

"In the Eighties, Jacques Monsieur affirms to have accomplished many voyages in the Eastern European countries.... At the time of the conflict in ex-Yugoslavia, 1992 to 1995, [he] is again that which implements the double game of the policy of the Western allies, while equipping with the belligerents normally subjected to an embargo of UNO.... [His] Team [includes] Jean-Bernard Lasnaud: correspondent of Jacques Monsieur installed close to Miami in Florida. This French, very known on the market of the armament, seems to profit from a direct protection of the CIA.... James Marty Cappiau: former Belgian parachutist, reconverted into private safety, after having been useful in the rows of the Croatian army."
[Google Translation From Original French]
The device of Jacques Mister
RFI Actualite, 6 December 2004

"At 51 years, Jacques Monsieur leaves his silence and speaks about his activity about merchant about weapons. French justice with [his]cases, the man lives in Belgium where it benefits from a bail. For [his] defense [he] ensures that the traffic of weapons was only one cover for activities of espionage to the profit of Western services of information [i.e. western intelligence] ..... Refined and polyglot, the agent Monsieur would have initially worked for the SGR, the military secret service Belgian, while being supervised by the American services on which [he] refuses to be more precise. The nature even of the operations of which [he] participle lets think that the CIA is not foreign with [his] activities. In particular at the time of Irangate (supply of weapons in Iran by the Americans in full Iran-Iraq war and whereas Washington and Teheran are with drawn knives). In this context, the pecuniary motivation of the services is not to exclude, because the values of the tenders concerned are colossal. Certain services of information could engage these operations to finance their own clandestine activities or to weaken the enemy....Beyond the principles, the way in which the intermediary circumvents the embargoes or the devices legal into force shows that such an activity cannot be considered without the active complicity of the military authorities. The supply of weapons and ammunition in Croatia and Bosnia is the example more completed. Whereas UNO and the forces of NATO impose a naval blockade Adriatique at sea, several cargo liners deliver their goods directly in Croatian ports. For Bosnia, the deliveries are carried out by Iliouchine cargo aircrafts being posed on airports theoretically controlled by the blue helmets! Consequently, difficult not to give a certain credit to the assumption of the 'amber light' (semi-official agreement) granted by the secret service."
[Google Translation From Original French]
Jacques Monsieur says 'the Fox': merchant of weapons and spy?
RFI Actualite, 6 December 2004

"Fourteen nations, including the US, support a $400 million 'Bosnian Defense Fund,' which reportedly collects cash and equipment contributions for a 'train and equip' program that is operated by the US. [Arms Trade News, 10/1997] According to investigative journalist Wayne Madsen, a former Naval Officer who has worked with the NSA: 'Via something called the Bosnia Defense Fund, these countries [Saudi Arabia, Iran, Malaysia, Brunei, Jordan, and Egypt] deposited millions of dollars into US coffers to buy weapons for the Bosnians…. According to Washington K Street sources, the law firm that established the Bosnia Defense Fund was none other than Feith and Zell, the firm of current Pentagon official and leading neo-con Douglas Feith. Feith’s operation at Feith and Zell was assisted by his one-time boss and current member of Rumsfeld’s Defense Policy Board, Richard Perle.' [CounterPunch, 9/18/2003]"
Before October 1997: $400 Million Bosnian Defense Fund Fuels Balkan Conflict
Cooperative Research, The use of Islamist militants by American and Israeli militarists

"The U.S. Congress has documented in detail, the links of Al Qaeda to agencies of the U.S. government during the civil war in Bosnia-Herzegovina, as well as in Kosovo"
Political Deception: The Missing Link behind 9-11
Centre for Research on Globalisation, Global Outlook, No. 2. Summer 2002

"A desperate Bosniak-dominated Bosnian government, facing an international arms embargo and outgunned by breakaway Bosnian Serb forces, accepted the help of Iran, as well as several thousand Islamic radicals, mercenaries, and others. The 1995 Dayton Peace Accords, which ended the conflict, required all foreign forces to leave Bosnia. Most did, but some Islamic radicals remained behind. It is estimated that several hundred former fighters stayed behind in Bosnia after the war and became Bosnian citizens by marrying Bosnian women. Others reportedly received citizenship through bribing Bosnian officials. Some Al Qaeda operatives in Bosniareportedly had connections to members of Bosnia’s intelligence service, another legacy of Bosniak wartime cooperation with Islamic militants. The experience of the Bosnia conflict has also had an impact on terrorist groups worldwide. Bin Laden and other Al Qaeda figures mention the Bosnian war as a place where Al Qaeda was active, and as an important militant Islamic cause. Terrorist recruiting videos often include footage of combat in Bosnia. In addition to fighters, Bosniaks also received assistance during and after the war from Islamic charities and humanitarian organizations, many of them from Saudi Arabia. Some of these groups served as fronts for Al Qaeda, which used them for planning attacks in Bosnia and elsewhere."
Islamic Terrorism and the Balkans
Congressional Research Service, 26 July 2005

"For years, Saudi Arabia flatly denied it had provided money and logistical support for Islamist militant groups that attacked Western targets. But that assertion is disputed by a former al-Qaeda commander who testified in a United Nations war-crimes trial that his unit was funded by the Saudi High Commission for Relief of Bosnia and Herzegovina. Ali Ahmed Ali Hamad, the former al-Qaeda fighter, gave the same account to The Inquirer in an interview in this struggling city in the central Balkans. 'Because it was the biggest charity, [the commission] helped the mujaheddin the most,' Hamad said, adding that it had provided 'everything a person needed to exist.' Hamad, 37, is expected to be called as a witness in a lawsuit filed by Cozen O'Connor alleging that Saudi Arabia and affiliated charities financed al-Qaeda and other groups as they geared up for the 9/11 attacks. As a convicted terrorist, Hamad is an imperfect witness. During the Balkans war, from 1992 to 1995, jihadists from North Africa and the Middle East were accused of atrocities against indigenous Serbs and Croatians. Hamad admits having done 'bad things' as an al-Qaeda fighter, and he is serving a 10-year sentence in a Bosnian jail for his role in a 1997 Mostar bombing. Yet Hamad's account of his time in the Balkans went largely uncontroverted during the U.N. trial, where he was a prosecution witness. He contends that the Saudi High Commission, an agency of the Saudi government, and other Islamist charities supported al-Qaeda-led units that committed atrocities. Mujaheddin units, he said, recruited fighters, prepared for battle, and financed their operations in the Balkans. He said the Saudi High Commission had poured tens of millions of dollars into mujaheddin units led by al-Qaeda operatives who fought with Osama bin Laden in Afghanistan. Money intended for humanitarian relief bought weapons and other military supplies.The charities also provided false identification, employment papers, diplomatic plates and vehicles that permitted Islamist fighters to enter the country and pass easily through military checkpoints, Hamad said. Several charity offices, including those of the Saudi High Commission, were led by former mujaheddin or al-Qaeda members, at least one of whom trained with Hamad in an al-Qaeda camp in Afghanistan, he said. Like other al-Qaeda fighters, Hamad said, he was an employee of the Saudi High Commission for a time and traveled through the war zone in commission vehicles with diplomatic plates."
A former al-Qaeda fighter accuses a Saudi charity
Philadelphia Inquirer, 31 May 2008

"Intelligence services of the Nordic-Polish SFOR Brigade suspect that a center for training terrorists from Islamic countries is located in the Bocina Donja village near Maglaj in Bosnia, Warsaw daily Rzecspospolita writes on Tuesday. The author of the article, Marek Popowsky, who used to be in both SFOR and its predecessor IFOR in Bosnia, writes that mujahideen had first come to Bosnia in 1992, and numbered over 3,000 in the summer of 1995. Besides mujahideen from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Iran and Pakistan, there were several hundred Muslim extremists who had come from Italy, France, Germany and Britain, he notes. Deserters from the Turkish, Malaysian and French UNPROFOR battalions also volunteered as mujahideen, Popowsky writes. In addition to dangerous military actions, the mujahideen also carried out a religious and ideological mission, enforcing abidance by the Koran and recruiting young soldiers to die for Allah, Popowsky writes. Noting that Bosniac (Muslim) troops respected their allies but feared them at the same time as Allahs' warriors used to carry out high-risk actions and were cruel fighters, Popowsky quotes Serb officers as saying that the mujahideen never took prisoners. Wounded enemy soldiers were usually decapitated or slaughtered by mujahideen, Popowsky writes. The Dayton Agreement committed (Bosnian Muslim leader) Alija Izetbegovic to remove all foreign fighters from Bosnia, but about one thousand mujahideen who obtained Bosnian citizenship in the meantime remain in Sarajevo, Tuzla, Zenica and about ten villages, the daily writes. The largest group of mujahideen is now in Bocina Donja, a formerly Serb village near Maglaj, the daily writes, adding that the Nordic-Polish intelligence service G-5 is following the activities of such unusual 'settlers', as it suspects that a camp for training terrorists is located in the village following reports from Serb and Croat forces' commanders. Noting that Islamic states had allocated to the Muslim part of Bosnia military and humanitarian aid to the value of over one billion dollars and that decisions to this effect had been taken not only by governments but also by various extremist Muslim groups and informal institutions, the daily writes that the activities of mujahideen in Bocina Donja would continue to be monitored by international special services to prevent the village from being transformed into a base for launching terrorist operations."
Polish Press Reports on Training of Mujahideen in Bosnia
Tanjung, 21 December 1997

"The most wanted terrorist in the world, [Osama] Bin Laden, was issued a Bosnia-Hercegovina passport, Sarajevo weekly `Dani'says in the issue which hit the news stands on Thursday [24th September]. Laden was issued a Bosnian passport by the Bosnian embassy in Vienna in 1993, the source maintains.According to `Dani', the Bosnian Foreign Ministry was seized by panic when Mehrez Aodouni, another Bosnian passport bearer, was arrested in Istanbul on 9th September. What ensued was the destruction of all documents which might connect Bosnian Muslim authorities with the outlawed Saudi millionaire.Bin Laden allegedly obtained the Bosnian passport when the Bosnian Muslim side was making desperate attempts to collect financial assistance from Western and Arabic countries for the defence of the country. During the Bosnian war, Vienna was considered the most important Western destination where to obtain logistic support necessary for the defence of the country."
The most wanted terrorist in the world, Osama Bin Laden, was issued a Bosnia-Hercegovina passport
HINA News Agency, Croatia, 24 September 1999

"Al Qaeda was present in Bosnia-Herzegovina during the last war and its members are still in that country, a prisoner of the Zenica Penal Institution, who has admitted that he is a former officer of this terrorist organisation he walked out of after the September 11 attack on the United States, has said in a letter. The Mostar daily Dnevni List reported on the letter, which the Zenica prisoner's lawyer Dusko Tomic claimed to be as authentic."
BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: New Claims on al Qaeda's Presence
SEEurope.net, 1 July 2004

"Today the Senate Select Committee on Intelligence questioned former Assistant Secretary of State Richard Holbrooke, who said the U.S. policy towards the arms shipments was already in place when he became the State Department's point man on Bosnia in September 1994."
Arms to Bosnia
PBS, 21 May 1996

"The Administration's efforts to keep even senior US officials from seeing its 'fingerprints' ... repeatedly deceived the American people about its Iranian green light policy."
House Select Subcommittee to Investigate the United States Role
in Iranian Arms Transfers to Croatia and Bosnia
8 October 1996

"...the Clinton Administration's policy of facilitating the delivery of arms to the Bosnian Muslims made it the de facto partner of an ongoing international network of governments and organizations pursuing their own agenda in Bosnia: the promotion of Islamic revolution in Europe. That network involves not only Iran but Brunei, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan (a key ally of Iran), and Turkey, together with front groups supposedly pursuing humanitarian and cultural activities.... [one group] is believed to be connected with such fixtures of the Islamic terror network as Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman (the convicted mastermind behind the 1993 World Trade Center bombing) and Osama Binladen, a wealthy Saudi emigre believed to bankroll numerous militant groups."
Clinton-Approved Iranian Arms Transfers Help Turn Bosnia into Militant Islamic Base
Congressional Press Release, US Congress, 16 January 1997

"The Dutch government has released a report that details the alliance between the United States and the Islamic effort to help Bosnian Muslims. The report determined that the United States provided a green light to groups on the State Department list of terrorist organizations to operate in Bosnia. This included the Lebanese-based Hezbollah. For the European Union, the U.S. effort marks a stain that calls into question Washington's war on terrorism. For nearly a decade, the Clinton administration helped Islamic insurgents aligned with Chechnya, Iran and Saudi Arabia destabilize the former Yugoslavia. The insurgents were allowed to bring weapons and explosives to Bosnia-Herzegovina and fight Serbs and their allies. The insurgents also were allowed to move further east to Kosovo. The United States was helped by a range of Muslim countries – from Iran and Saudi Arabia to Turkey. In short, the Clinton administration thought that the stronger the Muslims in Bosnia, the weaker the Serbian hold over Yugoslavia. Today, there are tens of thousands of Islamic insurgents throughout such countries as Bosnia, Croatia and Kosovo, and many of them are moving west to Austria, Hungary, Germany and Switzerland. "
U.S. gave green light to terrorists in Bosnia
WorldNetDaily, 24 April 2002

"The arrest in Serbia of a top terrorist fugitive has raised fresh concerns of an al-Qaida presence in the volatile Balkans, where thousands of U.S. and other international troops are stationed as peacekeepers. Abdelmajid Bouchar, a 22-year-old Moroccan, sought for involvement in last year’s train bombings in the Spanish capital Madrid, that killed nearly 200 people, was caught at the Belgrade railway station in June. The arrest, revealed earlier this month, revived concerns that the Balkans — with its porous borders, unsophisticated security systems, rampant corruption and organized crime — could serve as a haven for al-Qaida-linked terrorist groups.... Zoran Dragisic, a terrorism expert from Belgrade’s Faculty of Defense, warned that the Balkans could be more than just a transit station. 'The Balkans is the springboard for Europe-bound terrorism,' he told AP. 'We should all be extremely careful.' Dragisic claimed that al-Qaida put down roots in the Balkans in the early 1990s, when the region exploded in a series of ethnic conflicts. The political turmoil and ensuing instability led to the collapse of the security network, allowing organized crime to flourish. News reports during the conflict in Bosnia suggested that outsiders joined Bosnia’s Muslims in their conflict with the region’s Serbs and Croats...."
Concerns of al-Qaida link in Balkans renewed
Associated Press, 29 August 2005

"Sky News has obtained evidence of hundreds of radical Islamic Holy warriors hiding in Bosnia, a decade after the end of the war. Tim Marshall went to Zenica in search of answers. He found a growing radicalisation, and a new base for Al Qaeda."
The Hidden Army Of Radical Islam in Bosnia
Sky News, 28 February 2006

"The official Dutch inquiry into the 1995 Srebrenica massacre, released last week, contains one of the most sensational reports on western intelligence ever published. Officials have been staggered by its findings .... Now we have the full story of the secret alliance between the Pentagon and radical Islamist groups from the Middle East designed to assist the Bosnian Muslims... in flagrant violation of the UN security council arms embargo against all combatants in the former Yugoslavia. The result was a vast secret conduit of weapons smuggling though Croatia. This was arranged by the clandestine agencies of the US, Turkey and Iran, together with a range of radical Islamist groups, including Afghan mojahedin and the pro-Iranian Hizbullah...."
America used Islamists to arm the Bosnian Muslims
Guardian, 22 April 2002

"The greatest tension was caused by the participation of Muslims from Western Europe and the Middle East in the ABiH. 'Approximately 4000 Mujahedin, supported by Iranian special operations forces, have been continually intensifying their activities in central Bosnia for more than two years', according to the American Lieutenant Colonel John Sray, who was an intelligence officer in Sarajevo from April to August 1994. There are no reliable figures on the number of mercenaries or volunteers in Bosnia, Srpska and Croatia. Neither is anything known about their effectiveness. According to Bosnian-Serb sources, in the Muslim-Croat Federation there were more than 1300 fighters, including those of Kurdish, Algerian and other Arab origin. This group was said to be centred around Zenica. The MIS considered the number mentioned to be exaggerated. Like the author Ripley points out, there was no joint Muslim command and the rival Iranian, Saudi, Turkish and Malaysian-back groups all operated according to their own agendas. Mercenaries of non-Yugoslav origin were involved from the outbreak of the armed conflict. An active group was the Mujahedin. These were non-Bosnian, Islamic-fundamentalist fighters from Turkey, Iran, Pakistan, Sudan, Afghanistan, Jordan, Lebanon, Algeria and Saudi Arabia. Furthermore, the names of Jihad, Fis, Hamas and Hezbollah were linked with the Mujahedin in Bosnia. Sray estimated the number of Mujahedin fighters at 4000; in April 1994, the CIA arrived at the conclusion that there were approximately 400 fighters. In 1994, the UN put the number  at 450 to 500, and in 1995 at approximately 600. American estimates, however, spoke of 1200 to 1400. A BVD report from late 1995 likewise gave an estimate of only 200. This group withdrew from the control of the Bosnian authorities, both politically and militarily. There were unconfirmed reports of control by authorities of the countries of origin, by Islamic-fundamentalist terrorist organizations and by criminal organizations. The Mujahedin formed part of the 4th, 7th and 8th Muslimski brigade, stationed around Zenica in central Bosnia, and took part in the activities of several paramilitary units, such as the Black Swans. They fell under the responsibility of the ABiH 3rd and 7th Corps."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 – 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions

Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

"The UK Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) was also aware of the American secret arms supplies to the ABiH. According to a British intelligence official, the DIS never made an issue of them, so as not to further damage the sensitive relationship with the US services. An internal DIS analysis concluded that the arms were delivered via 'a different network', and that the entire operation was probably led by the NSC.... the DIS received a direct order from the British government not to investigate this affair. This was not permitted for the simple reason that the matter was too sensitive in the framework of American-British relations. The DIS also obtained intelligence on the secret supplies to the ABiH from the German military intelligence service and the Bundesnachrichtendienst, because some of the flights departed from Frankfurt. However, no American-German alliance existed in the matter of clandestine support to the ABiH."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 – 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions

Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

Britain's Involvement Was More Than Just Keeping Its Mouth Shut

"Pakistani intelligence chiefs are concerned that General Musharraf may jeopardise their relationship with British intelligence agencies after claiming that a convicted terrorist was once an MI6 informer. The President outlines the role played by a former London public schoolboy, Omar Sheikh, in the kidnap and murder of Daniel Pearl, the Wall Street Journal reporter, in February 2002. General Musharraf says that Sheikh, who orchestrated the abduction, was recruited by MI6 while he was studying at the London School of Economics and sent to the Balkans to take part in jihad operations there. He alleges that Sheikh later double-crossed British intelligence. 'At some point he probably became a rogue or double agent,' General Musharraf says."
'America paid us to hand over al-Qaeda suspects'
London Times, 25 September 2006

"Omar Sheikh is a British national born to Pakistani parents in London on December 23, 1973. His early education was in the United Kingdom, although he also spent four years at Lahore’s prestigious Aitchison College. He then went to the London School of Economics (LSE) but dropped out before graduation. It is believed in some quarters that while Omar Sheikh was at the LSE he was recruited by the British intelligence agency MI6. It is said that MI6 persuaded him to take an active part in demonstrations against Serbian aggression in Bosnia and even sent him to Kosovo to join the jihad. At some point he probably became a rogue or double agent."
President Purvez Musharraf of Pakistan
How we found Pearl buried in ten pieces
London Times, 26 September 2006

"...the Clinton Administration's [illegal] policy of facilitating the delivery of arms to the Bosnian Muslims made it the de facto partner of an ongoing international network of governments and organizations pursuing their own agenda in Bosnia: the promotion of Islamic revolution in Europe. That network involves not only Iran but Brunei, Malaysia, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Sudan (a key ally of Iran), and Turkey, together with front groups supposedly pursuing humanitarian and cultural activities.... [one group] is believed to be connected with such fixtures of the Islamic terror network as Sheik Omar Abdel Rahman (the convicted mastermind behind the 1993 World Trade Center bombing) and Osama Binladen, a wealthy Saudi emigre believed to bankroll numerous militant groups."
Clinton-Approved Iranian Arms Transfers Help Turn Bosnia into Militant Islamic Base
Congressional Press Release, US Congress, 16 January 1997

"[Bosnian Muslim leader] Izetbegovic travels to Pakistan to rally Muslim support for Bosnia....Izetbegovic, in Pakistan, appeals for aid from world’s Muslims.... the first three countries Izetbegovic visited after being inaugurated as president were Libya, Iran and Turkey. During a trip to Pakistan, Saudi Arabia and Turkey in July 1991, he conveyed the impression that he was looking to conclude an Islamic alliance... From June 1992 so-called mujahedin or ‘holy warriors’ from Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Algeria, Turkey, Bahrein and Qatar fought on the Muslim side in the war in Bosnia. There were only a few hundred of them fighting in the war but, more importantly, their involvement had the blessing of Izetbegovic... the supply of weapons from particularly Pakistan and Iran to Bosnia was not by sea, but mainly by air..... The so-called Air Operations Coordination Center in Sarajevo was manned by personnel from NATO.... Requests for Close Air Support .....went to the Operational section ... in Tuzla. This section consisted almost entirely of Pakistanis.... the officer in charge of operations (the G-3) of Sector North East, [was] the Pakistani Lieutenant-Colonel Rachid Sadiki... As Sarajevo was very much aware of its dependence on Croatia, Izetbegovic visited Teheran again on 14 September 1993 to deepen the defence relationship.... eanwhile Holbrooke was becoming increasingly frustrated that the [illegal arms] Croatian pipeline [to Bosnia] was not progressing well. .... Holbrooke therefore proposed to deliver arms and ammunition to the ABiH [Bosnian Muslim army] via third party countries. Lake, who had always welcomed such covert operations, nonetheless found the plan 'too risky'. The Secretary of State, Christopher, shared this view. They did support ‘lift and strike’ but not ‘lift, arm and strike’. Holbrooke's proposals did lead to a debate within the administration. Clinton and State Department officials considered supplies via Saudi Arabia, Turkey and Pakistan. This was not new: in the 1980s, Saudi Arabia had already supplied arms worth $ 500 million via the CIA to the Mujahedin fighters in Afghanistan..... A number of countries are candidates for having supplied directly to Bosnia. Pakistan delivered equipment, as did the Sultan of Brunei, who paid for anti-tank missiles from Malaysia. In January 1993 already, a Pakistani vessel with ten containers of arms, which were destined for the ABiH, was intercepted in the Adriatic Sea. Pakistan definitely defied the United Nations ban on supply of arms to the Bosnian Muslims and sophisticated anti-tank guided missiles were air lifted by the Pakistani intelligence agency, ISI, to help Bosnians fight the Serbs, an ex-ISI Chief has officially admitted in a written petition submitted before a court in Lahore. The document was submitted by Lt. General (Retd) Javed Nasir, who was head of the ISI from March 1992 to May 1993, in a case he filed against the owner and editors of the largest newspaper and TV group of Pakistan, in an anti Terrorism Court. It remains unclear how the missiles were transported to Bosnia and who did it.... As early as 1992 Iran had opened a smuggling route to Bosnia with the assistance of Turkey; this was two years before the Clinton administration gave 'permission' for creating the [illegal arms] Croatian pipeline. Bosnian government officials acknowledged that in 1993 a Turkish pipeline also existed, through which the above-mentioned arms from Saudi Arabia, Malaysia, Brunei and Pakistan were smuggled..... NATO officers stated in a British daily newspaper that if the American intelligence services used a cover, 'Turkey would be the obvious choice'. The Turkish air force had C-130s that could reach Tuzla. This was otherwise also true of the Iranian and Pakistani air forces, which were also mentioned as possible third-party countries for supplies via Turkey to Tuzla. The UK Defence Intelligence Staff (DIS) was also aware of the American secret arms supplies to the ABiH. According to a British intelligence official, the DIS never made an issue of them, so as not to further damage the sensitive relationship with the US services. An internal DIS analysis concluded that the arms were delivered via 'a different network', and that the entire operation was probably led by the NSC [the US President's National Security Council]. It was stressed that the CIA and DIA were not involved in the Black Flights to Tuzla. Incidentally, the DIS received a direct order from the British government not to investigate this affair. This was not permitted for the simple reason that the matter was too sensitive in the framework of American-British relations.... The Pentagon had likewise identified Cengic as the main link between the supplies from Islamic countries, such as Iran, Turkey and Pakistan.... The conclusion must be that the United States 'turned a blind eye' to the Croatian pipeline, but in the case of the Black Flights to Tuzla Air Base, they deliberately closed their 'eyes' (of the AWAC aircraft) for the direct Turkish flights. US aircraft did not themselves fly to Tuzla, because their discovery would have seriously embarrassed the US government and put transatlantic relations under even greater pressure. Supplies via a third party country were a simpler solution for the United States."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

"U.S. support for the Muslims in Bosnia also came from the person who is the new head of the Central Intelligence Agency, General Michael V. Hayden. At the time, he was director of the U.S. European Command Intelligence Directorate, based in Stuttgart, Germany. According to a Dutch government report, Hayden 'had access to virtually all intelligence' from the United States, United Nations and NATO. As a result, Hayden used his intelligence unit to allow so-called 'black flights' of arms to Muslim forces during the Bosnian campaign in 1995. General Hayden was aware that these arms were assisting many of the foreign mujahadeen, which also were receiving support from Iran and bin Laden. According to a Dutch intelligence report at the time, the shipments included 'weapons, ammunition, uniforms, helmets, new anti-tank weapons and Stingers.' These arms were said to have been dropped in Tuzla, shipped by land or air into Bosnia for the Bosnian Muslim army which included the al-Qaida-linked mujahadeen. After becoming the head of the National Security Agency in March 1999, Hayden then refused to clear the use of intelligence to halt continuing illegal shipments of arms to mujahadeen militants in the Balkans. Often, these arms were brought in discreetly by Muslim countries that were part of the United Nations peacekeeping forces sent in to prevent further violence."
F.Michael Maloof, former Pentagon Counterterrorism Adviser
Iran subversion in Balkans
G2 Bulletin, 25 September 2006

(Who is Michael Maloof? - Click Here)

"The Clinton administration followed up by providing strong support to the KLA, even though it was known that the KLA supported the Muslim mujahadeen. Despite that knowledge, then Secretary of State Madeleine Albright had the KLA removed from the State Department list of terrorists. This action paved the way for the United States to provide the KLA with needed logistical support. At the same time, the KLA also received support from Iran and Usama bin Laden, along with 'Islamic holy warriors' who were jihad veterans from Bosnia, Chechnya and Afghanistan. Swiss journalist Richard Labeviere, in his book, 'Dollars for Terror,' said that the international Islamic networks linked to bin Laden received help from U.S. intelligence community. Indeed, Chechen sources claim that U.S. intelligence also aided them in their opposition to Russia. Given that U.S. policy in the post-Cold War period has not only been anti-Russian but anti-Iranian, the United States worked closely with Pakistan's predominantly Sunni Inter-Services Intelligence organization. Through ISI, the United States recruited Sunni mujahadeen by staging them in Chechnya to fight in Bosnia and later in Kosovo."
F.Michael Maloof, former Pentagon Counterterrorism Adviser
Iran subversion in Balkans
G2 Bulletin, 25 September 2006

(Who is Michael Maloof? - Click Here)

"Not having learnt any lessons from the sequel to its policy of encouraging fanaticism and pan-Islamism in Afghanistan and despite the humiliation inflicted on the US troops in Somalia by the HUM in 1993, the CIA asked the ISI to divert part of the dregs of the HUM and the HUJI to Bosnia to assist the Muslims there in their fight against the Serbs. The transfer to Bosnia was funded by the Saudi Intelligence, the arms and ammunition were given by the Iranian Intelligence and the leadership and motivation were provided by serving and retired officers of the ISI and the Turkish intelligence. Omar Sheikh, who masterminded the kidnapping of Daniel Pearl of the 'Wall Street Journal', had his jihadi inoculation   in Bosnia just as bin Laden had his in Afghanistan. From Bosnia, they were diverted to Kosovo by the CIA and thereafter again left in the lurch after they had done the USA's hatchet job in the Balkans."
Punishment Terrorism
South Asia Analysis Group, 31 March 2003

"Rejected by the West, the Bosniaks turned east. Into the gap stepped Iran and Saudi Arabia, pushing a hardline Islam quite unsympathetic to Bosnia’s Ottoman traditions. During the war we saw bearded Arab fighters, known as Mujahidin, in the narrow lanes of the Ottoman-era city of Travnik. They were hard men, hostile to Westerners and angry at the presence of Bosniak women soldiers. In nearby Zenica, Bosniak soldiers formed the all-Muslim 7th Mountain Brigade, which fought with the Mujahidin. Despite the culture clash, the foreign fighters were welcome. 'Some of them might be motivated by the possibility of fighting a jihad, but I only wish there were more of them. Their presence shames Europe,' one army commander said.... Radical Islam has taken root not just in Bosnia, but across the Balkans. When I asked a young Bosniak soldier about Serb claims that his people wanted an Islamic regime, he replied: 'Europe will bring about here the very thing it fears.'”
How Omarska drove Bosnians to radical Islam
London Times, 18 November 2005

"During Senate hearings, [head of the National Security Council] Lake was forced to admit that the U.S. knew of the Iranian arms flights [into former Yugoslavia] and did nothing to stop them. Lake, who was then up for the newly vacated CIA Directorship, admitted the misdeeds and resigned in disgrace. The sudden admission of a U.S./Iranian plot to arm the Muslims strained relations [with European allies]....."
How Clinton created Serb war
WorldNetDaily 6 April 1999

"These covert air drops began at the start of 1995.... former UN Commander in Bosnia General Sir Michael Rose was aware that the Americans were secretly bugging his office.....Europe feels it can no longer rely on the US in times of crisis.... there can be no doubt that its origins can be traced back to the results of American mendacity and covert operations during the conflict in Bosnia."
Allies and lies
BBC Online, 22 June 2001

HOT - READ FULL TRANSCRIPT OF 'ALLIES AND LIES' - CLICK HERE - HOT

"This is a story of espionage, bugging, covert military operation, political double dealing. In an investigation across six countries Correspondent has uncovered a series of incidents which has tested the western alliance to breaking point.... This is a story about Americans behaving badly, about thousands of unnecessary deaths [in the Balkans]...."
Allies and lies
BBC Online, 22 June 2001

"The Bosnian war was the first major test of the West's resolve in the post-Cold War era, and one that it unambiguously failed.... Into this already complicated situation came the ultimate 'wild card', the United States of America, the world's only superpower. A small group at the head of America's foreign policy elite intervened covertly in what it had previously called 'Europe's problem'.... Its easy answer for Bosnia's ills was 'lift and strike' - re-arm the Bosniaks (mostly Bosnian Muslims) and Croats and bomb the Serbs. At first arms were sent to Bosnia via Croatia, but the Croats were reluctant to arm the Bosnian army with sophisticated weapons, so America took it upon itself to deliver arms directly to the Bosnian Muslim Army - the ABiH. These covert air drops began at the start of 1995. The most well-documented were the drops at Tuzla in the north of Bosnia, where they were observed by members of the UN Nordic Battalion stationed close to the dropping zone.... Nato had been manipulated to allow the US to conduct its own unilateral policy in the Balkans. The air drops were only the tip of the iceberg. A team of retired US officers planned the bloody Croatian 'liberation' of the Kraijina and the subsequent invasion of western Bosnia by the Croatian Army in the summer of 1995. The US also provided intelligence to the Croats, flying unmanned reconnaissance drones off the Adriatic island of Brac. More significantly the US launched a huge signals and electronic intelligence gathering operation in Croatia to provide targeting information not for Nato or the UN, but for Croatia alone. American intelligence-gathering in the region was conducted on a huge scale. At any one time over 100 operators from across the spectrum of US intelligence agencies were on the ground in Bosnia. They were deployed not only in non-governmental organisations (NGOs) but in UN civilian and military agencies as well. This intelligence-gathering was aimed as much at the UN as the Serbs, and intelligence was passed directly on to the Bosnian Government. This information was often used to ratchet up the pressure on UN commanders to launch punitive air strikes on the Serbs.... The scope of these activities included bugging UN Commanders and diplomats. Former UN Commander in Bosnia General Sir Michael Rose was aware that the Americans were secretly bugging his office.. All of this intelligence-gathering activity was supposed to be concealed from America's allies in the UN and NATO..... Senior European negotiators believe that with US backing the war could have ended two years earlier, but US desire to see the Serbs punished meant that they instead encouraged the Bosnian Government to continue fighting. The price in human terms? Over 15,000 dead and nearly 600,000 refugees."
Allies and lies
BBC Online, 22 June 2001

"He ordered me not to talk to anybody about this. He said it's a very serious incident and, if anybody had any queries about it, they were to contact him personally."
UNPROFOR Norwegian Air Force Captain Oivind Moldestad (1995)
describing the response from
British Army General Sir Rupert Smith when he reported his discovery of the US backed covert air drops to Islamic fighters in Bosnia

Allies and lies
BBC 2, 24 June 2001
(Full Programme Transcript - Click Here)

To listen to description of covert air drop witnessed by Moldestad 10 February 2005 - Click here

"The British journalist Nik Gowing tracked down several Norwegian witnesses to the Black Flights... one of the most important Norwegian witnesses, Moldestad, would be taken aside by three American officers. They took him to a balcony on the fifth floor of a hotel in Zagreb, and made clear to him that if he stuck to his account and said any more on the subject, things could get messy for him. After reports on British television and articles in the press, journalists were also put under pressure by the American embassy in London. They heard all manner of threats. The embassy was said to have been acting on the instructions of the State Department."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 – 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions

Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

"The scale of America's espionage operations cannot be understated. Hundreds of personnel from the Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency and the National Security Agency were deployed in Bosnia during 1994 and 95. The US contributed far more spies than infantry - but what UNPROFOR needed was infantry. Washington wanted it both ways. It had no players on the pitch, but that wasn't going to stop it trying to dictate the outcome of the 'game'.... Senior officials in the State Department, the CIA and the National Security Council believed that the only solution possible was what they called 'lift and strike'. They wanted to re-arm and train the Croats and the Muslims and then encourage them to fight an all-out war against the Bosnian Serb Army. 'Lift and strike' was totally contrary to the UN mandate and in breach of the Arms Embargo. It was Washington's secret agenda. Correspondent can reveal that part of the American administration went so far as to manipulate NATO resources in order to re-arm the Bosnian Army -- BiH Army....  NATO's primary involvement in the Balkans was Operation Deny Flight - the total ban on all unauthorised flying over Bosnia.... But this vital operation was manipulated by the Americans in order to do exactly what it was designed to stop - make covert, embargo-busting flights over Bosnia."
Allies and lies - Full Program Transcript
BBC, Correspondent, June 2001

For Full Transcript of BBC Documentary 'Allies and Lies' - Click Here - Essential Reading

"Defence analyst Tim Ripley believes that the US plot to [secretly] train and equip the Bosnian Muslims directly led to the terrible death-toll at Srebrenica later in 1995."
Allies and Lies
BBC, Correspondent, June 2001

"...the [Srebrenica] enclave increasingly acquired the status of a 'protected area' for the ABiH, from which the ABiH could carry out hit and run operations against, often civilian, targets. These operations probably contributed to the fact that at the end of June the VRS was prepared to take no more, after which they decided to intervene: the VRS decided shortly after to capture the enclave. In this respect, the [illegal US sponsored] Black Flights to Tuzla and the sustained arms supplies to the ABiH in the eastern enclaves did perhaps contribute to the ultimate decision to attack the enclave. In this connection it is not surprising that Mladic and other Bosnian Serbs constantly complained about this, but usually received no response to their complaints..."
Srebrenica - A Safe Area?
Appendix II - Intelligence and the war in Bosnia 1992 – 1995: The role of the intelligence and security services
Chapter 4, Secret arms supplies and other covert actions

Report Published on Behalf of The Dutch Government, 10 April 2002

"The U.S. government needs to release crucial imagery and signals intelligence information it collected during the capture of Srebrenica and the several days afterward, during which Serb forces committed the massacre. Intelligence experts such as Cees Wiebes of the Netherlands, who spent years investigating the fall of Srebrenica for a Dutch government-sponsored report, believe that the United States has such information. If it is not forthcoming, Congress should order an investigation of what our country knew about the massacre and when. Failure to do so would suggest that the leaders of the world's only superpower in the 1990s fear being held accountable for failing to act to stop the genocide. Indeed, Srebrenica survivors this week announced plans for a lawsuit seeking compensation of nearly $850 million from the United Nations and the Netherlands, whose peacekeepers failed to protect the enclave the U.N. Security Council had declared a 'safe area.' 'States won't cooperate,' Del Ponte [chief prosecutor at the Hague] said recently. 'They don't want the real truth to come out. It's politically disturbing.'.."
Truth In The Balkans
Washington Post, 12 November 2003

"The theory that this genocide was a result of an unforeseeable last-minute decision was originally initiated years ago by some Western governments, which used this argument to explain to their constituencies that the Srebrenica genocide was something unforeseeable to them. .... the Prosecution lacks access to some crucial evidence in the possession of the U.S., which prior to, during and after the Srebrenica tragedy was intercepting phone conversations between the Bosnian Serb and the Serbian leaderships...."
Florence Hartmann, former ICTY spokesperson
Srebrenica through ICTY eyes
The European Courier (USA), 13 December 2009

"Some 8,000 Bosnian Muslim men and boys were murdered by Bosnian Serb forces in the UN safe haven of Srebrenica in 1995. A five-year investigation into the role of Dutch peacekeepers in the massacre was published earlier this month and quickly triggered the resignation of the entire Dutch government. A major component of the Dutch report focusing on the role of Western intelligence in the Bosnian war has, however, gone relatively unnoticed. Among other findings, the inquiry reveals U.S. involvement in an illegal weapons-smuggling pipeline to Bosnian Muslims..."
Yugoslavia: Dutch Srebrenica Report Reveals Role Of Western Intelligence Services In Bosnian War
Radio Free Europe / Radio Liberty, 22 April 2002

"Former US President Bill Clinton has paid tribute to victims of the 1995 Srebrenica massacre in Bosnia - Europe's worst atrocity since World War II. Mr Clinton, who was US president when the Bosnian war finally ended in 1995, was unveiling a memorial cemetery for more than 7,000 Muslim men and boys who died in Srebrenica.... The BBC's Nick Hawton says many locals have mixed feelings about Mr Clinton's presence ..... many ask why Washington did not take action sooner".
Clinton unveils Bosnia memorial
BBC report 20 September, 2003

"[The Americans] were concerned that their allies would learn about the covert operations and mis-use of NATO resources. So they shut down the supply of all satellite reconnaissance photography and signals intelligence....."
Allies and Lies
BBC Correspondent, 22 June 2001

"It was very provoking because intelligence is one of the main assets  that the Americans bring to NATO. […] Europe has depended on, and chosen to depend on, America for supplying this data… so it was an incredible provoking act to stop it."
Stĺle Ulriksen, deputy director of Norway's Foreign Policy Institute
Allies and Lies
BBC Correspondent, 22 June 2001

"In an interview with Sweden's leading news-wire TT, retired Brigadier Bo Pellnas claims that the US 'faked evidence [in the Balkans] to suit their own interests.'.....Pellnas says he witnessed this first-hand when he led an international force which safeguarded the borders between Serbia and Bosnia in the mid-1990s, where he gained a very good insight and understanding of US operations.... Pellnas served in Yugoslavia during a time when US efforts, led by then Secretary of State Madeline Albright, presented evidence to the UN Security Council that Milosevic's Belgrade government ran unmonitored arms shipments. Pellnas claims that Albright's staff presented manipulated satellite photos to document false allegations, leading the Security Council to act in accordance with the US hard line against Milosevic..."
Don't trust the American proclamations
Swedish daily newspaper 'Aftonbladet', 24 December 2002

"The President assured not only Congress, but the American people and allies, like Britain and France, that he was staunchly opposed to lifting the arms embargo. And without telling even our own Joint Chiefs of Staff, it now develops the President secretly let it be known in Iran that the United States would not oppose huge, illegal arms shipments to the Bosnian Moslems. Huge quantities of weapons, accompanied by Iranian intelligence agents and mujahedin rebels, were thus shipped into Bosnia, by a regime that the Clinton administration publicly was branding as the financier, the armorer, the trainer, the safe haven, and inspiration for terrorists. These are the people that the secret Clinton policy, that Bill Clinton himself, secretly was introducing to Europe. As the U.S. Assistant Secretary of Defense was using those exact words I just quoted, the financier, armorer, trainer, safe haven, and inspiration for terrorists, the description of Iran, he was using those exact same words in his testimony to Congress. His boss in the White House, Bill Clinton, knew that up to eight cargo jets each month were taking off with Iranian arms bound for Bosnia."
ARMS EMBARGO IN BOSNIA
Congressman Chris Cox, California - (House of Representatives - April 25, 1996)

Congressional Record [Page: H4044]

"Many writers and reporters have traced al-Qa'eda and other terror groups' origins back to the Afghan war of 1979-1992, that last gasp of the Cold War when US-backed mujahedin forces fought against the invading Soviet army. It is well documented that America played a major role in creating and sustaining the mujahedin, which included Osama bin Laden's Office of Services set up to recruit volunteers from overseas ... Yet America's role in backing the mujahedin a second time in the early and mid-1990s is seldom mentioned - largely because very few people know about it, and those who do find it prudent to pretend that it never happened.... From 1992 to 1995, the Pentagon assisted with the movement of thousands of mujahedin and other Islamic elements from Central Asia into Europe, to fight alongside Bosnian Muslims against the Serbs. The Bosnia venture appears to have been very important to the rise of mujahedin forces, to the emergence of today's cross-border Islamic terrorists who think nothing of moving from state to state in the search of outlets for their jihadist mission. In moving to Bosnia, Islamic fighters were transported from the ghettos of Afghanistan and the Middle East into Europe; from an outdated battleground of the Cold War to the major world conflict of the day; from being yesterday's men to fighting alongside the West's favoured side in the clash of the Balkans. If Western intervention in Afghanistan created the mujahedin, Western intervention in Bosnia appears to have globalised it.... The Pentagon's secret alliance with Islamic elements allowed mujahedin fighters to be 'flown in', though they were initially reserved as shock troops for particularly hazardous operations against Serb forces. According to a report in the Los Angeles Times in October 2001, from 1992 as many as 4,000 volunteers from the Middle East, North Africa and Europe, 'known as the mujahedin', arrived in Bosnia to fight with the Muslims. Richard Holbrooke, America's former chief Balkans peace negotiator, has said that the Bosnian Muslims 'wouldn't have survived' without the help of the mujahedin, though he later admitted that the arrival of the mujahedin was a 'pact with the devil' from which Bosnia is still recovering. By the end of the 1990s State Department officials were increasingly worried about the consequences of this pact. Under the terms of the 1995 Dayton peace accord, the foreign mujahedin units were required to disband and leave the Balkans. Yet in 2000, the State Department raised concerns about the 'hundreds of foreign Islamic extremists' who became Bosnian citizens after fighting against the Serbs, and who pose a potential terror threat to Europe and the United States. US officials claimed that one of bin Laden's top lieutenants had sent operatives to Bosnia, and that during the 1990s Bosnia had served as a 'staging area and safe haven' for al-Qa'eda and others. The Clinton administration had discovered that it is one thing to permit the movement of Islamic groups across territories; it is quite another to rein them back in again. Indeed, for all the Clinton officials' concern about Islamic extremists in the Balkans, they continued to allow the growth and movement of mujahedin forces in Europe through the 1990s. In the late 1990s, in the run-up to Clinton's and Blair's Kosovo war of 1999, the USA backed the Kosovo Liberation Army against Serbia. According to a report in the Jerusalem Post in 1998, KLA members, like the Bosnian Muslims before them, had been 'provided with financial and military support from Islamic countries', and had been 'bolstered by hundreds of Iranian fighters or mujahedin ...[some of whom] were trained in Osama bin Laden's terrorist camps in Afghanistan'. It seems that, for all its handwringing, the USA just couldn't break the pact with the devil... It would appear that when it comes to Bosnia, many in the West have a moral blind spot..... Western intervention in Bosnia, it would appear, has become an unquestionably positive thing, something that is beyond interrogation and debate."
How we trained al-Qa'eda
Spectator, 13 September 2003

"In your article on Bosnia (November 25th), you say that in February 1992, before the war had started, Lord Carrington and I 'drafted a constitution that would have turned the country into a confederation of Swiss-style cantons. The Muslims refused to accept what they considered to be the disintegration of Bosnia.' Not quite. After several rounds of talks our 'principles for future constitutional arrangements for Bosnia and Hercegovina' were agreed by all three parties (Muslim, Serb and Croat) in Sarajevo on March 18th 1992 as the basis for future negotiations. These continued, maps and all, until the summer, when the mulims reneged on the agreement. Had they not done so, the Bosnian question might have been settled earlier, with less loss of (mainly Muslim) life and land. To be fair, President Izetbegovic and his aides were encouraged to scupper that deal and to fight for a unitary Bosnian state by well-meaning outsiders who thought they knew better".
Letter - Jose Cutileiro, Secretary-General of the Western European Union
Economist 9-15, September 1995

"One former European negotiator commented...'If the United States had supported a settlement instead of quietly urging the Bosnian government to fight on, we could have had peace a long time ago".
New York Times, 23 November 1995

"Diplomats in the region say Bosnia was the first bastion of Islamic power. The autonomous Yugoslav region of Kosovo promises to be the second.... [Ethinic Albanians] are being bolstered by hundreds of Iranian fighters, or Mujahadeen, who infiltrate from nearby Albania and call themselves the Kosovo Liberation Army... Yugoslav officials and, privately, many foreign diplomats link the Iranian-backed Bosnian regime to the current rebellion in Kosovo. They say the Iranian success in maintaining a presence and influence in Sarajevo led Teheran to quickly adopt the KLA... The crisis in Albania led Iran to quickly move in to fill the vacuum. Iranian Revolutionary Guards began to train KLA members.... But much of the training of the KLA remains based in Bosnia....The trainers and fighters in the KLA include many of the Iranians who fought in Bosnia in the early 1990s.... A US congressional analyst said much of the Iranian training and arms smuggling in Bosnia takes place near the contingent of US peacekeeping troops."
Kosovo seen as new Islamic bastion
Jerusalem Post, 14 September 1998

"More recently, Feith and Perle teamed up to represent another foreign entity, the government of Bosnia. According to Richard Holbrooke, the principal U.S. negotiator at the Dayton peace talks, Perle and Feith worked for and advised the Bosnians during the talks. This time, however, they did not register with the Department of Justice, as foreign agents are required to do."
New Questions About Feith
Washington Watch, 13 May 2001

"More dispositive than these speculations, however, are the very real connections between Washington and Islamic jihadists in the Balkans throughout the 1990s. The report hints at this relationship by mentioning the presence of charity fronts of bin Laden's 'network' in Zagreb and Sarajevo. In fact, the U.S. government engaged in a massive covert operation to infiltrate Islamic fighters, many of them veterans of the Afghan war, into the Balkans for the purpose of undermining the Milosevic government. The 'arms embargo,' enforced by the U.S. military, was a cover for this activity (i.e., using military force to keep prying eyes from seeing what was going on). A key Washington fixer for the Muslim government of Bosnia was the law firm of Feith and Zell. Yes, Douglas Feith, one of the principal conspirators involved in launching the Iraq war under the banner of opposing Islamic terrorism, was a proponent of introducing Islamic terrorists into South Eastern Europe. Do the 'Islamofascists' of pseudo-conservative demonology accordingly seem less like satanic enemies and more like puppets dangling from an unseen hand? Or perhaps the analogy is incorrect: more like a Frankenstein's Monster that has slipped the control of its creator."
A Half-Dozen Questions About 9/11 They Don't Want You to Ask
Counter Punch, 18 February 2006

"There are strong Wahhabi cells of Saudi Arabian origin in the Kosovo villages of Planjane and Racane in the Sredacka zupa area, says a statement issued today by the press office of the Rasko-Prizrenska Eparchy.   The statement says that there are training camps in northern Kosovo, where trainers are experienced terrorists who were active in Afghanistan and Bosnia-Hercegovina (B-H).   The statement recalls that recently UNMIK [UN Mission in Kosovo] police uncovered in the village of Talinovac near Urosevac, in a 'Shqiptar [Albanian] terrorist cell' liquid explosives, identical to the explosive used in terror operations in London. These centres and camps for training of terrorists have at their disposal arms and explosives which 'are going to be used in future attacks against Christians, their churches, cemeteries, and other holy places' says the statement. Over the last seven years, since the arrival of the international community, around 400 new mosques have been constructed in Kosovo, while 150 churches have been demolished, the statement says."
Strong Wahhabi cells of Saudi Arabian origin in the Kosovo villages
BBC Monitoring Service, 15 November 2006

"The discovery of a mountain cave packed with plastic explosives, masks and machine guns - and the recent arrests of men devoted to radical Islam - have fueled fears that extremists are trying to carve out a stronghold in this remote corner of Europe. Police in southern Serbia's Sandzak region last month arrested six local Muslims and accused them of belonging to a fundamentalist Wahhabi sect - an austere brand of Sunni Islam promoted by extremists, including the Taliban, Osama bin Laden and his al-Qaida fighters. Recently leaked Western intelligence reports allege that the tense, impoverished area, along with Muslim-dominated regions in neighboring Bosnia, are rich ground for recruiting so-called 'white al-Qaida' - Muslims with Western features who could easily blend into European or U.S. cities and carry out attacks. Al-Qaida and other radical Islamic groups, the reports warn, may be trying to increase their influence in the Muslim-populated regions in the southern Europe to penetrate deeper into the continent. The presence of radical Muslims in Sandzak, the poorest region of Serbia, is linked to the advent of mujahedeen foreign fighters who joined Bosnian Muslims in their battle against the Serbs in Bosnia's 1992-95 independence war. Sandzak's Muslims like to be called Bosniaks because they believe they ethnically belong to Bosnia, not Serbia. A March 16 police raid on what authorities said was a mountain terrorist camp just south of Novi Pazar unveiled a large cache of weapons, ammunition, hand grenades, plastic explosives and face masks. Authorities captured four of the suspected Wahhabi Muslims in the raid, and two others four days later. TV footage of the cave broadcast in Serbia also showed a black flag with a Quran inscription in Arabic, and propaganda material that investigators said praised bin Laden and al-Qaida... A recent report by the U.S. Bureau of International Narcotics and Law Enforcement Affairs identified Sandzak as 'the center point'' on a Balkan drug smuggling route that leads from Afghanistan via Turkey to Western Europe."
Muslim Radicals Strengthen in Serbia
Guardian, 3 April 2007

"The six foreign-born Muslims accused of planning a shooting attack at the U.S. military base included four ethnic Albanians, and U.S. officials say their arrests highlight how Islamist groups are using the Balkans region to help in recruiting and financing terrorism. Prosecutors described the men as 'radical Islamists,' with four coming from the province of Kosovo in the former Yugoslavia, where the ethnic Albanian population of Muslims fought one of the several wars that grew out of the breakup of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. Suspect Agron Abdullahu, who faces only weapons violations in the case, was described in court papers as a 'sniper in Kosovo.' U.S. officials said the Islamists were motivated by al Qaeda sympathies and that ringleader Mohamad Ibrahim Shnewer, who was born in Jordan, had copies of the wills of two September 11 terrorists on his laptop computer. The other suspect in the group -- accused of seeking to kill hundreds of soldiers at Fort Dix, N.J. -- was born in Turkey. U.S. officials said intelligence reports from the Balkans have identified a support structure for several terrorist groups, including al Qaeda, among the Muslim communities in Albania and in the former Yugoslavia, including Bosnia-Herzegovina, Kosovo and Macedonia. 'When it comes to extremists, we're talking about very, very small pockets in Albania, as well as among the ethnic Albanian populations in Kosovo, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Macedonia and other parts of the Balkans,' said one official with access to intelligence reports. The official pointed out that the Albanian government has been supportive of U.S. efforts to counter Islamic terrorist activities, including curbing logistics and financial aid, and working to prevent terrorists from receiving training and weapons. But a Congressional Research Service report produced in 2005 said instability in Albania during the 1990s gave al Qaeda a 'foothold' there. 'Poor internal security, lax border controls, and high rates of crime produced an environment conducive to terrorist activity,' said the report by CRS specialist Steven Woehrel. 'Some foreign Islamic extremists used Albania as a safe haven and gained Albanian citizenship.' Balkan Muslims also have been targets of al Qaeda recruitment efforts because they have an easier time blending in or evading U.S. and European security measures and border controls, which often are geared to identifying Middle Eastern extremists. The State Department's latest annual report on international terrorism said the Albanian government has taken steps to stop terrorism financing but noted that 'government and police forces faced substantial challenges to fully enforce border security and combat organized crime and corruption.' The Albanian government identified seven financial holdings by terrorist groups last year that were frozen. Israeli government sources have said that agents for the Palestinian militant group Hamas, as well as the Shi'ite Hezbollah, have been actively buying weapons from organized-crime groups in the Balkans. Bosnia also has a large Muslim community that in the past has provided a base of support for al Qaeda and other terrorists. After the 1995 Dayton Peace Accords, most Islamic radicals, who were helping Bosnia's Muslims fend off the Orthodox Christian Serbs, left the Balkans, but some remained behind. 'It is estimated that several hundred former fighters stayed behind in Bosnia after the war and became Bosnian citizens by marrying Bosnian women,' the CRS report said. 'Some al Qaeda operatives in Bosnia reportedly had connections to members of Bosnia's intelligence service.' European intelligence agencies estimate that as many as 750 Muslim former fighters remain hidden in Bosnia and have acted as a supply network to send guns, money and documents to terrorists passing through the region. Al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden and other al Qaeda leaders often mention Bosnia as an important example of jihad, or holy war."
Plot illustrates Balkans' role as Islamist foothold
Washington Times, 9 May 2007

"September 2001, George W. Bush admonished the world, 'Either you are with us, or you are with the terrorists.' But how will the world know where to stand when America itself is with the terrorists? Such is the America that operates in the Balkans, and such is the question underlying Christopher Deliso's new book, 'The Coming Balkan Caliphate', which tells the most terrifying story never told in the War on Terror. . . . Deliso's main focus is Kosovo, which saw the Clinton administration repeat its deadly Bosnian mistake rather than admit it. Regarding Kosovo and the surrounding areas that, like clockwork after our intervention, curiously fell victim to near carbon-copy conflicts of Kosovo (Macedonia, Montenegro and southern Serbia), Deliso again makes quick work of the principal objection one encounters when pointing to how NATO directly Islamicized the Balkans: << Albanians, whether from Albania, Kosovo, or Macedonia, have scoffed at the idea of a major religious fundamentalist incursion in their midst. So have their Western yes-men. The West heavily backed the Kosovo Liberation Army during the NATO bombing, despite the presence of mujahedin in its ranks, and for Western publics to suspect that this cause has been muddled up with an Islamist one would amount to a public relations disaster for both Clinton-era political veterans and for the Albanians themselves. Indeed, it would call into question the entire rationale for Western intervention in Kosovo. >> The Islamist cause that Deliso refers to is the prevalence of Saudi Arabia, UAE and others who have been active in the Balkans since even before Western interventions there but for whom the interventions were a major boon and downright coup. Wahhabi groups and 'charities' entice Albanians in Kosovo and Macedonia with hundreds of dollars per month for every family member who adopts the strictest form of fundamentalist Islam. To that end, the Balkan landscape has been changing, not only with the new, Saudi-style mosques now dotting the formerly Christian lands, always taller than the nearest (and usually vandalized) church, but also with the increasing prevalence of Wahhabi dress and worship. . . . From Caliphate, a reader begins to understand that Kosovo, which is already infecting surrounding areas, is run by systematic chaos, everyone alternating roles between gangster and hostage: Albanian leaders/gangsters threaten the Islamists should they target the internationals; al Qaeda threatens Albanians with cutting off their heroin supply if they touch the Islamists; and the internationals are threatened with the understanding that the well-armed Albanians have a virtual gun pointed at our NATO troops should we embark on any unwelcome law enforcement. One begins to understand why the State Department has been repeating the mantra that there are no options other than unconditional independence for Kosovo, as per Albanian demands."
The coming Balkan caliphate
Jewish World Review, 1 November 2007

"It appears to many American observers that Moscow has been gravitating toward Cold War behavior without any rationale. This would certainly be puzzling behavior, given that, as some astute observers have pointed out, this is a Russia that recalled the Red Army from everywhere outside Russian borders, a Russia that allowed its satellite states to be thrown out of power, a Russia that recently embraced freedom and capitalism and let us show them how to do it. But soon after, the U.S. did something to sabotage, and ultimately reverse, this progress, making Russia legitimately wary of U.S. 'interests' and leading it — and other nations — to conclude America is capable of being as mischievous as Russia. We bombed Europe. Specifically Serbia, for the crime of launching a counteroffensive against a terrorist insurgency in Kosovo whose aim was to snatch 15 percent of the country's land. And now the United States supports severing Kosovo from Serbia via a precedent-setting unilateral declaration of independence next month by the province's terrorist masters — over Moscow's logical objections. One of those terrorist masters, Agim Ceku — the province's 'prime minister' — made the terrorist case in last week's Wall Street Journal. To this day, almost no one grasps the significance of the damage the 1999 intervention single-handedly did to American standing and American credibility, when the United States turned NATO into an aggressive body, attacking a sovereign nation fighting none other than Islamic-financed separatists within its borders.... Despite al Qaeda and Iran considering it their greatest recent victory, the Balkans remain the most aggressively ignored region in the context of the war on terror — by media, by the blogosphere that is supposed to police the media, and by our politicians — busily feeding off the spoils of our suicidal machinations there. It is popularly thought that this forgotten and convoluted region is insignificant. Most people hardly remember the word 'Kosovo' and even members of the conservative (and liberal) intelligentsia furrow their brows when someone is odd enough to bring it up. And yet 'insignificant' Kosovo has so far managed to restart the Cold War; to lay the foundation for Europe's next Muslim state; to foist a terrorist neighbor onto Macedonia, Greece, Montenegro and Serbia; to break international law; to set a precedent for secessionist movements the world over; to reverse the American imperative in the War on Terror and the War on Drugs; and to expand al Qaeda's long-sought European base. In short, it has managed to turn America into a traitor to itself and the Free World it once led."
Jihad can't break our Cold War addiction
Washington Times, 22 November 2007

Bosnia - 'I was put on trial by Al Qaeda'

"Back in the early 1990s Allan Little was reporting the war in Bosnia, a war which became identified with the concept of ethnic cleansing. During the conflict large numbers of foreign Muslim men arrived in Bosnia. At first information about them was hard to come by until one day Allan Little and his camera crew found them by accident as he explains in part one. In part two, Allan tells us more about what he learnt about the group of men who came to Bosnia seeking martyrdoom. He begins by describing an incident which may have been the first example of British troops exchanging fire with the jihadists."
'I was put on trial by Al Qaeda - Westminster Hour
BBC Online, 15 February 2009


From Part I

"[In November 1993] A year into the [Bosnian] war, hundreds of men from other parts of the Muslim world had arrived in Bosnia. Many had come to train. Some - though we did not know it at the time - had already fought in Afghanistan. We Western reporters knew they were there. What we did not know is that they were already part of a nascent global jihad led by a group whose name was not yet familiar to us: al-Qaeda. We thought them a sideshow - irrelevant to the much more compelling dynamic of the war between actual Bosnians. One bright cold morning a camera crew and I drove from our house in the Lashva Valley to the town of Zenica accompanied by our translator, a brave and formidable young woman called Vera Kordic. We made our way quietly through deserted outskirts. We turned into the main thoroughfare. And then we saw them: a column of men hundreds strong marching towards us in ordered ranks. They wore green uniforms, and bandanas, and carried banners with slogans written not in Serbo-Croatian but in Arabic script. Some wore turbans and heavy beards. We saw the green shimmer of the Saudi national flag, and the red and green bands of the Iranian. They were highly charged, pumped up with a raw, aggressive energy, chanting, brandishing weapons above their heads."
'I was put on trial by al-Qaeda' - Part 1
BBC Online, 7 February 2009

From Part II

"Summer 1993. A young British Army lieutenant is on a routine patrol in the hills of Central Bosnia....He enters a village called Guca Gora. At its heart is a twelfth century Franciscan monastery. This has been a Roman Catholic village – that is to say its population have been ethnic Croats – for at least a millennium.....There, this is what the people tell him: that their village has been surrounded by Muslim warriors; not Bosnian Muslims, not their former neighbours, but men whose language they don’t understand. The foreign fighters have taken up positions so close to the village that their voices can be heard. What do they say? We don’t know. They speak in Arabic. They shout Allahu akbar, God is Great.........The British were coming, sending a fleet of vehicles to evacuate the villagers before the foreign mujahedeen arrived.....And now I wonder: was this the first exchange of fire between British troops and warriors of the global jihad? Was I present at the opening shots of a conflict that would reach into the twenty-first century, re-shape our world and – after 9/11 – come to define our times?  In the battle now raging the deserts of Helmand in Afghanistan were the opening shots fired on that verdant hillside in Bosnia all those years ago? Was I present at the opening volley?....What we know now, as we write that history in retrospect, is that those men began arriving in Bosnia in the summer of 1992, a few weeks into what was to be the three and a half year conflict. We know now that within a year there were between two and five thousand of them and that by the summer of 1993 they had organised themselves into fighting units over which the local Bosnian commanders had no control. We know now that most of them had come through training camps in Afghanistan, Pakistan and Sudan, and that many were veterans of the war against the Soviet Union in Afghanistan. We know now that most were fugitives from their native countries. They had come from Algeria, Saudi Arabia, Egypt, Yemen, Jordan, Iraq, Kuwait. And we know now that many were agents of Al Qaeda, answerable directly to Osama Bin Laden; that Bin Laden’s deputy Ayman al- Zawahiri took personal charge of exporting the Afghan jihad to Bosnia........In those six months between the capture of Guca Gora in June 1993, and the murder of Paul Goodall in January 1994, the foreign mujahedeen – the Arab-Afghans as local Bosnians came to know them – opened, in the Balkan peninsular, a European front in the nascent global jihad.....In August 1993 – two months before my own encounter with them – the shura formally asked the Bosnian government to recognise them as an independent fighting force. This, they argued, was the only way they could avoid, in future, being betrayed by the cowardice of the Bosnian fighters who sought not martyrdom but life. President Alija Izetbegovic agreed and the fighting unit which would style itself Kateebat al-Mujahadeen – the Battalion of Holy Warriors – was born. Even at the time, Bosnian army commanders were worried. General Rasim Delic, who commanded Bosnian forces in Central Bosnia at that time, was alarmed by reports of atrocities they were committing against Serb and Croat prisoners. 'They are perpetrating senseless massacres', he said. 'They are kamikaze, desperate people'. General Delic is now serving three years in prison, indicted by the Hague tribunal for command responsibility for crimes committed by the foreign Mujahadeen on territory ostensibly under his control. At his trial the court heard of summary mass executions of unarmed Serbs and Croats. In July 1995, soldiers from the Bosnian Serb Army were captured and taken to a Mujahadeen camp at a place called Kamenica. There, one soldier was decapitated and the others were forced to kiss the head, before themselves being further tortured. General Delic’s defence team told the court that the Mujahadeen units took their orders not from local commanders but directly from the Islamic Cultural Institute in Milan. They identified an Al Qaeda operative called Sheik Anwar Shaaban as the real commander of the foreign fighters. “Sheik Anwar Shaaban” the defence counsel said “was the real authority in the Mujahadeen detachment. Combat reports were sent to him. Shaaban was a veteran of the Afghan war who had been granted asylum in Italy in 1991. He would later find himself identified by the CIA as a senior leader of a banned Egyptian organisation called Al Gama’at al-Islamiyah. Evidence would later emerge that Shaaban had been in regular contact with Al Qaeda second in command Ayman al-Zawahiri. Osama bin Laden himself is said to have been issued with a Bosnian passport at the Bosnian embassy in Vienna."
Allan Little - 'I was put on trial by Al Qaeda' - Part II
BBC Online, 15 February 2009

"Radovan Karadzic insisted yesterday that the Bosnian Serbs fought a 'just and holy' war to block the creation of an Islamic state.... He insisted that the plan for a Muslim state was supported by 'various actors', including the United States and Germany. He quoted George Kenney, a former Yugoslav desk officer for the US State Department, urging Alija Izetbegovic, the Bosnian President, to block negotiations and 'hold out for a unitary Bosnian state'. Dr Karadzic concluded: 'This kind of American intervention guaranteed severe war in Bosnia and the deaths of thousands of people.'”
Radovan Karadzic defends 'just and holy' war against Muslims
London Times, 2 March 2010

"In a shock to Croatia over its conduct of Balkan warfare in the 1990s, a United Nations court on Friday found a Croatian general, Ante Gotovina, guilty of war crimes and crimes against humanity in a campaign he led to regain Croatian land and drive Serbs out of the Krajina region in 1995. General Gotovina, who was arrested in the Canary Islands in 2005 after four years on the run, was sentenced to 24 years in prison because troops under his command shelled towns, looted, killed and persecuted civilians. The court sentenced Mladen Markac, another general in the campaign, to 18 years, but acquitted a third, Ivan Cermak, of all charges and ordered his release. The decisions by a three-judge panel of the Yugoslav war crimes tribunal in The Hague were in effect an indirect verdict on the late president of Croatia, Franjo Tudjman, who died in 1999 as prosecutors at The Hague were planning to have him indicted. The court said Mr. Tudjman was the leader of a 'joint criminal enterprise' to drive Serbs from Krajina, a hilly region they had long inhabited in central and southern Croatia, and to repopulate the area with Croats only. In 1991 Serbian rebels, backed by Belgrade, broke away and created a separate statelet there. The verdicts also raised fresh questions about the role Croatia says American advisers played in the campaign, a turning point in the Balkan wars of 1991-95. During and after the operation to drive Serbian military and police forces from Krajina, about 300 civilians were killed, many in their homes, and some 90,000 Serbs fled Croatia. Thousands of their abandoned homes were looted and burned. The campaign was planned by Mr. Tudjman and Croatian commanders, who have said they were helped by active and retired American military personnel..... The question of what role the United States played during the Krajina campaign has remained a matter of intense intrigue in Croatia and Serbia.... Croatian officials have said that United States military advisers and a Virginia-based contractor, Military Professional Resources, trained Croatian forces and assisted in planning, and that American drone aircraft supplied intelligence about Serbian movements. The trial revealed no new details about those assertions, and lawyers on both sides said the issue was not relevant to the case of the three generals. The United States is not implicated in any of the criminal charges related to the operation. But lawyers following the proceedings said American intelligence information could or should have warned Croatian forces if war crimes were being committed. Lawyers close to the case, speaking on the condition of anonymity, said that Croatian officials claim privately that the C.I.A. and Pentagon helped plan the operation. Lt. Col. Richard C. Herrick, who was the American military attaché in Zagreb at the time, testified for the defense at the trial, saying that American training for Croatian forces involved teaching the laws of war. Colonel Herrick said he knew little about the consequences of the operation because he was recalled two days before it began. On Friday in Zagreb, President Ivo Josipovic of Croatia said he was particularly disturbed by the judges’ ruling that the Krajina campaign was a 'joint criminal enterprise' that included the country’s top leadership."
U.N. Court Convicts Two Croatian Generals of War Crimes and Frees a Third
New York Times, 15 April 2010

"General Ratko Mladic described in his diaries in details how he was meeting during the war from October of 1992 until February of 1994 with Croatian generals from Herceg-Bosnia and agreed with them about mutual fight against the Muslims, how he requested millions of German Marks and delivery of naphtha for ‘certain services’ and agreed deliveries of weapons and exchange of prisoners. It can be seen in the diaries that Slobodan Milosevic requested in July of 1993 that the war should be over as soon as possible and that ‘too large support’ should not be given to Croats in Herceg-Bosnia. It also can be read that the police and army leadership had huge problems regarding discipline of staff leaders. The Hague Tribunal’s Prosecution has publicized parts of Ratko Mladic’s diaries confiscated by Serbian police in February this year during search of his family house in Belgrade..... The notes from meeting in Hungary are especially interesting. A Croatian representative Praljak says to Mladic: ‘Bosnia/Herzegovina cannot be made without the Serbs but it cannot be made without the Muslims and us either. Since the last time we had not let the Mujahedins in. Their number is increasing, several thousands are ready waiting in Iran. The goal is Banovina 1939, if not, we continue the war. It is not our goal to fight against you and then have the Mujahedins here’. He further assures Mladic that Tudjman-Izetbegovic agreement is only formal and made ‘at the insisting by the Americans who want to be viewed better by the Muslim world’."
Mladic used to sell weapons to Croats
Blic (Serbia), 28 May 2010

"Interviewed by TIME in August 1995, weeks after his troops had slaughtered more than 7,000 Muslim men and boys near the town of Srebrenica, Bosnian Serb General Ratko Mladic, now on trial for war crimes at the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia at The Hague, declared he was acting out of fear of a new Islamic push through the Balkans to Europe. 'By this demographic explosion Muslims are overflowing not only the cradle of Christianity in the Balkans but have left their tracks even in the Pyrenees,' Mladic said.... As the slaughter unfolded in Bosnia, and Europe and the U.S. belatedly mustered the will to stop it, Western attitudes towards the post-Cold War world took shape, as well. Neoconservatives and hawkish Democrats found common cause in humanitarian intervention. The media and the public learned from the NATO action in August and September 1995 and the Dayton peace agreement in November that American military might could impose stability—for a time. But 20 years later, with international military and police forces still keeping the peace in Bosnia, we have found there—and at much greater cost elsewhere—that an initially successful intervention by America’s unmatched armed forces cannot impose sectarian comity."
20 Years Later: The Bosnian Conflict in Photographs
TIME, 5 April 2012

"Muslims in Britain, America and across the Middle East were radicalised not by western sloth on Bosnia, but rather by the west's transformation of that dirty civil war into a simplistic battle between good and evil. Simms is guilty of some sins of omission, too. He fails to mention, for example, that between 1,800 and 3,000 mujahideen fought in Bosnia on the side of the Bosnian Muslim army. These holy warriors came from the Middle East, north Africa and western Europe (notably France and the UK). And their path to holy war in Bosnia was facilitated by western intervention. The mujahideen moved to Bosnia as part of a process of 'Islamicisation' of the conflict, which took place under the watchful and approving eye of the Clinton administration. In 1993 and 1994, the Clintonites gave a green light to Iran, Saudi Arabia and various highly dubious radical Islamic charities to arm the Bosnian Muslims. Despite having denounced Iran as 'the worst sponsor of terrorism in the world', the Clinton administration told both Croat and Bosnian Muslim leaders that they should accept shipments of weapons, ammunition, anti-tank rockets, communications equipment and uniforms and helmets from Iran. Washington also allowed 'Islamic charities', which really were radical mujahideen-based organisations, to supply money and arms to the Bosnian Muslims. As the Washington Post reported in September 1996, US officials on the ground in Bosnia, who were motivated by 'sympathy for the Muslim government and ambivalence about maintaining the arms embargo', instructed other western officials to 'back off' and 'not interfere' with these shipments from radical Islamists. This US-supported supply line between the Middle East and Bosnia, through which both Iranian elements and radicals sent money and weapons, also encouraged mujahideen to make their way into the Balkans. Along with the flow of radical Islamist weaponry into Bosnia, there followed the movement of radical Islamist warriors. Once inside Bosnia, the mujahideen fought with the Bosnian Muslim army, at a time when it was being supported politically and militarily by Washington. In 1994 and 1995, Washington surreptitiously supplied the Bosnian Muslim army with weapons and training, even though it had hundreds of mujahideen in its ranks. The mujahideen formed a battalion of holy warriors which was, according to Evan Kohlmann, directly answerable to then Bosnian Muslim leader Alija Izetbegovic. In other words, America armed and trained a military machine that was using mujahideen as 'shock troops'. As the United Nations said in 1995, the period of America's secretive arming, the mujahideen were 'directly dependent on [the Bosnian Muslim army] for supplies'.Perhaps most strikingly, many mujahideen were encouraged to venture to Bosnia by shrill media coverage of the conflict. .... Many of the mujahideen who fought in Bosnia went on to become al-Qaida operatives. They learned their trade of simplistic moral fury and brutal violence on the battlefields of Bosnia, where they were enticed and inflamed to execute holy war against the Serbs by western meddling and western media coverage. They were the armed wing of western liberal opinion, the shock troops for the western liberal prejudice of their age: Serb-baiting."
The Bosnian connection
Guardian, Comment Is Free, 6 July 2012

"It is true that it was impossible for Milosevic to control the Bosnian Serbs – it resembled a monster which he had created and couldn’t control any more."
Sir Ivor Roberts, British ambassador to Belgrade 1994 - 1997
Evidence Given at trial of Jovica Stanisic, head of Serbian State Security 1991 - 1998
Bosnian Institute, 9 July 2012

"The young man wore a long beard and pants that stopped above his ankles. He sprayed the U.S. embassy in Bosnia with machine gun fire. Friday's incident in Sarajevo, in which the gunman and a police officer were wounded but no one died, was the latest in a series of incidents in eastern Europe involving Wahhabis — followers of an austere brand of Sunni Islam promoted by radicals, including the Taliban and al-Qaida fighters. The recent rise of militant Wahhabis and other Islamic radicals across the Balkans — including in Bosnia, Serbia, Kosovo, Macedonia, Albania, Montenegro and even European Union member Bulgaria — has triggered concerns that the region could become a breeding ground for terrorists with easy access to Western Europe or the U.S. The shooter in Friday's incident, 23-year-old Mevlid Jasarevic, came from Serbia — the southern region of Sandzak, a Wahhabi stronghold — but also had strong links with a conservative Bosnian Muslim village that has attracted police attention in the past. Authorities across the Balkans say that not all Wahhabis are militants, and not all militants are Wahhabis. But they say the radical anti-Western Islamic teaching has the potential for creating terrorist cells that support the sect's militants rooted in Saudi Arabia, Afghanistan and Pakistan. Many fear that militant Wahhabis and other extremist Muslims from the Balkans could slip across borders and blend into Western societies before conducting terrorist attacks. There have already been incidents. In March, a Kosovo Albanian acting alone fatally shot two American airmen in Frankfurt. In 2008, three ethnic Albanian brothers originally from Macedonia were implicated in a plot to attack the U.S. Army's Fort Dix military base in New Jersey. In March 2007, a police raid on what Serbian authorities said was a mountain terrorist camp unveiled a large cache of weapons, ammunition, hand grenades and plastic explosives. Twelve Wahhabis were later sentenced to lengthy prison terms, including on convictions that they planned terrorist attacks against the U.S. embassy in Belgrade. 'At this moment, the radicals cannot topple governments or trigger wars,' said Dragan Simeunovic, a political science professor at Belgrade University and terrorism expert. 'What they can do are sporadic terrorist attacks.' But, if they grow in numbers because of financial support from some Muslim countries, 'we could expect bigger problems in the Balkans,' he said. The presence of radical Muslims in the war-ravaged Balkans is linked to mujahedeen foreign fighters who joined Bosniak Muslims in their battle against the Serbs in Bosnia's 1992-95 war for independence. The Islamic fighters in Bosnia were largely tolerated by the U.S. and the West because of their opposition to former Serbian strongman Slobodan Milosevic's quest to create a 'Greater Serbia' out of the former Yugoslav republics. The issue of radical Islamic influence is particularly politically charged in Bosnia, a country divided between Bosniak Muslims, Catholic Croats and Orthodox Serbs. The Serbs maintain there is a huge presence of Wahhabis in the country, while Bosniaks downplay the problem and at times claim it does not exist."
Embassy attack highlights Balkan Islamists
Associated Press, 31 October 2012

"It is time to consider the extent to which American secret agencies have developed a symbiotic relationship with the forces they are supposed to be fighting – and have even on occasion intervened to let al-Qaeda terrorists proceed with their plots..... Consider the FBI’s instruction in 1993 to the Canadian RCMP [Royal Canadian Mounted Police] to release the al-Qaeda organizer Mohamed Ali, who then proceeded to Nairobi in the same year to begin planning the U.S. Embassy bombing of 1998.... the best insider's book about the FBI and Ali Mohamed, [is] The Black Banners, by former FBI agent Ali Soufan (a book that was itself heavily and inexcusably censored by the CIA, after being cleared for publication by the FBI)....  by 1996 bin Laden was 'supporting Islamists in Lebanon, Bosnia, Kashmir, Tajikistan, and Chechnya.' 72 And in step with bin Laden, the al-Kifah Center [in New York] was also supporting jihad after 1992 'in Afghanistan, Bosnia, the Philippines, Egypt, Algeria, Kashmir, Palestine, and elsewhere.' 73 But bin Laden and Al-Kifah were not acting on their own, they were supporting projects, especially in Tajikistan (1993-95) and then Chechnya (after 1995), where their principal ally, Ibn al-Khattab (Thamir Saleh Abdullah Al-Suwailem) also enjoyed high-level support in Saudi Arabia.74 'Khattab enjoyed a certain amount of logistical and financial support from Saudi Arabia. Saudi sheikhs declared the Chechen resistance a legitimate jihad, and private Saudi donors sent money to Khattab and his Chechen colleagues. As late as 1996, mujahidin wounded in Chechnya were sent to Saudi Arabia for medical treatment, a practice paid for by charities and tolerated by the state.' 75 Ali Soufan adds that America also supported this jihad: by 1996, 'the United States had been on the side of Muslims in Afghanistan, Bosnia, and Chechnya.' 76 By protecting the Al-Kifah Center [in New York] and its associates (including Mohamed) and not prosecuting them for their crimes (including murder), the U.S. Government was in effect keeping open a channel whereby those in America who wished to wage jihad were helped to wage jihad in other countries, not here."
Peter Dale Scott - US Government Protection of Al-Qaeda Terrorists and the US-Saudi Black Hole
The Asia-Pacific Journal, Vol. 11, Issue 29, No. 1, July 29, 2013


4. US Backed Terrorism In Kosovo

Press Reports On False Claims Of Genocide By Serbs In Kosovo  - click here

"Iranian Revolutionary Guards have joined forces with a Saudi millionaire to support the Albanian underground movement in Kosovo. They hope to turn the region into their main base for Islamic armed activity in Europe. According to a senior Egyptian security source, an agreement was signed in Tehran on February 16 with the Saudi Osama Bin Laden who also has links with Afghanistan's fundamentalist Taliban militia. Bin Laden, 44, described by the US State Department as 'one of the most significant sponsors of Islamic extremist activities', has begun extending his operations to eastern Europe. He has supported Muslims in Bosnia and Kosovo, the source said. Iran is keen to strengthen its presence in the region. Bin Laden's activities appear to have been concentrated so far mainly in the Bosnian town of Zenica. Five Egyptian members of the al-Gamaa al-Islamiya movement, which killed 58 tourists in Luxor last November, have now moved to Kosovo."
Iranians move in
Sunday Times, 22 March 1998

"The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) has claimed responsibility for more than 50 attacks on Serbs and Albanians loyal to the Belgrade government, but little is known about the separatist group. . . . Details of the KLA, which the United States calls a terrorist organization, are sketchy at best. Western intelligence sources believe there are no more than several hundred members under arms with military training. Serbian police estimate there are at least 2,000 well-armed men. The KLA is said to rely heavily on a huge network of informers and sympathizers, enabling it to blend easily among the population. The Western sources also believe the core of the organization consists of Albanians who fled into exile in the 1970s and based their operation in Switzerland, where its funding is gathered from all over the world. 'If the West wants to nip the KLA in the bud, all it has to do is crack down on its financial nerve center in Switzerland,' one source said. Part of the funding, this source believes, comes from the powerful Albanian mafia organizations that deal in narcotics, prostitution and arms smuggling across Europe. The KLA has admitted having training bases in northern Albania, which the Albanian government does not condone but is powerless to stop."
Speculation Plentiful, Facts Few About Kosovo Separatist Group
Baltimore Sun, 6 June 1998

"Diplomats in the region say Bosnia was the first bastion of Islamic power. The autonomous Yugoslav region of Kosovo promises to be the second. During the current rebellion against the Yugoslav army, the ethnic Albanians in the province, most of whom are Moslem, have been provided with financial and military support from Islamic countries. They are being bolstered by hundreds of Iranian fighters, or Mujahadeen, who infiltrate from nearby Albania and call themselves the Kosovo Liberation Army. US defense officials say the support includes that of Osama Bin Laden, the Saudi terrorist accused of masterminding the bombings of the US embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam. A Defense Department statement on August 20 said Bin Laden's Al Qa'ida organization supports Moslem fighters in both Bosnia and Kosovo. The growing Islamic fundamentalist presence is an issue rarely voiced in public. The Arab and Islamic world form a huge part of the current and potential market for many of the countries in Central Europe, and highlighting their involvement in the violence in Kosovo is simply bad business. But the growing support of Iran in Central Europe and the Balkans is regarded as the biggest threat to the region, with the possibility that it can spill over into Western Europe. 'If we isolate the Moslems in Bosnia, then they themselves can be a threat neither to the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia nor to the wider region,' Yugoslav Defense Minister Pavle Bulatovic said in an interview. 'They could be a threat if they gain support from other Moslem national movements or Moslem states.' Yugoslav officials and, privately, many foreign diplomats link the Iranian-backed Bosnian regime to the current rebellion in Kosovo. They say the Iranian success in maintaining a presence and influence in Sarajevo led Teheran to quickly adopt the KLA. The KLA strength was not the southern Kosovo region, which over the centuries turned from a majority of Serbs to ethnic Albanians. The KLA, however, was strong in neighboring Albania, which today has virtually no central government. The crisis in Albania led Iran to quickly move in to fill the vacuum. Iranian Revolutionary Guards began to train KLA members. Iranian and Saudi representatives opened foundations to provide patronage. An Islamic bank was launched in the Albanian capital of Tirana. In Skadar, Iranian agents opened the Society of Ayatollah Khomeini. In the Kosovo town of Prizren, Islamic fundamentalists formed a society funded by the Iranian Culture Center in Belgrade. Selected groups of Albanians were sent to Iran to study that country's version of militant Islam. So far, Yugoslav officials and Western diplomats agree that millions of dollars have been funnelled through Bosnia and Albania to buy arms for the KLA. The money is raised from both Islamic governments and from Islamic communities in Western Europe, particularly Germany. Since April, Yugoslav officials say, the KLA has smuggled arms and ammunition in from Albania. They say attempts to smuggle several cannon - meant to launch large- scale strikes against Yugoslav forces - were unsuccessful. The ramifications of the Iranian campaign has been felt throughout the Middle East. Both Israel and Turkey, for example, have been alarmed by its success in gaining influence in both Bosnia and Albania and have been busy trading intelligence on developments in the region. 'Iran has been active in helping out the Kosovo rebels,' Ephraim Kam, deputy director of Tel Aviv University's Jaffee Center for Strategic Studies, said. 'Iran sees Kosovo and Albania as containing Moslem communities that require help and Teheran is willing to do it.' But much of the training of the KLA remains based in Bosnia. Intelligence sources say mercenaries and volunteers for the separatist movement have been recruited and paid handsome salaries of DM 3,000-DM 5,000 (NIS 6,800-NIS 11,400) a month. The trainers and fighters in the KLA include many of the Iranians who fought in Bosnia in the early 1990s. Intelligence sources place their number at 7,000, many of whom have married Bosnian women. There are also Afghans, Algerians, Chechens, and Egyptians. A US congressional analyst said much of the Iranian training and arms smuggling in Bosnia takes place near the contingent of US peacekeeping troops. He said the Clinton administration is fully aware of Iranian activities in Bosnia and Kosovo, but has looked the other way to maintain the 1995 Dayton Accords. 'The administration wants to keep the lid on the pot at all costs,' the analyst said. 'And if that means that Iran benefits and operates freely in the region, so be it. Needless to say, the Europeans have been quite upset by this.'"
Kosovo Seen as New Islamic Bastion
Jerusalem Post, 14 September 1998

"The man accused of orchestrating the U.S. Embassy bombings in Africa operates a terrorist network out of Albania that has infiltrated other parts of Europe, The Sunday Times reported. The newspaper quoted Fatos Klosi, the head of the Albanian intelligence service, as saying a network run by Saudi exile Osama Bin Laden sent units to fight in the Serbian province of Kosovo. Bin Laden is believed to have established an Albanian operation in 1994 after telling the government he headed a wealthy Saudi humanitarian agency wanting to help Albania, the newspaper reported. Klosi said he believed terrorists had already infiltrated other parts of Europe from bases in Albania. Interpol believes more than 100,000 blank Albanian passports were stolen in riots last year, providing ample opportunity for terrorists to acquire false papers, the newspaper said. Apparent confirmation of Bin Laden's activities came earlier this month during the murder trial of Claude Kader, 27, a French national who said he was a member of Bin Laden's Albanian network, the newspaper ssid. Kader claimed during the trial he had visited Albania to recruit and arm fighters for Kosovo. U.S. authorities believe bin Laden, a Saudi exile and militant Muslim, masterminded the bombings of U.S. Embassies in Kenya and Tanzania in August that killed 224 people, including 12 Americans. Three alleged co-conspirators are already jailed in New York."
Bin Laden operated terrorist network based in Albania
Associated Press, 29 November 1998

"Mujahidin fighters have joined the Kosovo Liberation Army, dimming prospects of a peaceful solution to the conflict and fuelling fears of heightened violence next spring.. . . . Their arrival in Kosovo may force Washington to review its policy in the Serbian province and will deepen Western dismay with the KLA and its tactics. . . . 'Captain Dula', the local KLA commander, was clearly embarrassed at the unexpected presence of foreign journalists and said that he had little idea who was sending the Mujahidin or where they came from; only that it was neither Kosovo nor Albania. 'I've got no information about them,' Captain Dula said. 'We don't talk about it.' . . . American diplomats in the region, especially Robert Gelbard, the special envoy, have often expressed fears of an Islamic hardline infiltration into the Kosovo independence movement. . . . American intelligence has raised the possibility of a link between Osama bin Laden, the Saudi expatriate blamed for the bombing in August of US embassies in Nairobi and Dar es Salaam, and the KLA. Several of Bin Laden's supporters were arrested in Tirana, the Albanian capital, and deported this summer, and the chaotic conditions in the country have allowed Muslim extremists to settle there, often under the guise of humanitarian workers. . . . 'I interviewed one guy from Saudi Arabia who said that it was his eighth jihad,' a Dutch journalist said."
U.S. Alarmed as Mujahidin Join Kosovo Rebels
London Times, 26 November 1998

"The Kosovo Liberation Army, which has won the support of the West for its guerrilla struggle against the heavy armour of the Serbs, is a Marxist-led force funded by dubious sources, including drug money. That is the judgment of senior police officers across Europe. An investigation by The Times has established that police forces in three Western European countries, together with Europol, the European police authority, are separately investigating growing evidence that drug money is funding the KLA's leap from obscurity to power. The financing of the Kosovo guerrilla war poses critical questions and it sorely tests claims to an 'ethical' foreign policy. Should the West back a guerrilla army that appears to be partly financed by organised crime? Could the KLA's need for funds be fuelling the heroin trade across Europe? . . . As well as diverting charitable donations from exiled Kosovans, some of the KLA money is thought to come from drug dealing. Sweden is investigating suspicions of a KLA drug connection. 'We have intelligence leading us to believe that there could be a connection between drug money and the Kosovo Liberation Army,' said Walter Kege, head of the drug enforcement unit in the Swedish police intelligence service. Supporting intelligence has come from other states. 'We have yet to find direct evidence, but our experience tells us that the channels for trading hard drugs are also used for weapons,' said one Swiss police commander. . . . One Western intelligence report quoted by Berliner Zeitung says that DM900 million has reached Kosovo since the guerrillas began operations and half the sum is said to be illegal drug money. In particular, European countries are investigating the Albanian connection: whether Kosovan Albanians living primarily in Germany and Switzerland are creaming off the profits from inner-city heroin dealing and sending the cash to the KLA. Albania -- which plays a key role in channelling money to the Kosovans -- is at the hub of Europe's drug trade. An intelligence report which was prepared by Germany's Federal Criminal Agency concluded: 'Ethnic Albanians are now the most prominent group in the distribution of heroin in Western consumer countries.' Europol, which is based in The Hague, is preparing a report for European interior and justice ministers on a connection between the KLA and Albanian drug gangs. Police in the Czech Republic recently tracked down a Kosovo Albanian drug dealer named Doboshi who had escaped from a Norwegian prison where he was serving 12 years for heroin trading. A raid on Doboshi's apartment turned up documents linking him with arms purchases for the KLA."
'Drugs Money Linked to the Kosovo Rebels
London Times, 24 March 1999

"...populated with an ethnic Muslim Albanian majority, Kosovo is fast becoming the new 'darling' of the US Clinton Administration’s Balkans policy... Moreover, the White House’s recent discovery of the Kosovo issue as a political priority comes at the time when terrorism and subversion inspired by Islamists are spreading and escalating among Albanians in Kosovo, Macedonia (FYROM), and Albania itself. This recent escalation is the most visible component of the first phase of Tehran’s long-term plan, currently being implemented. This plan includes intense preparations for the eruption of hostilities in Kosovo... The current escalation of sectarian violence in Kosovo is not a sudden event, but a result of thorough preparations in Albania and Bosnia-Herzegovina.... Meanwhile, by late 1997, the Tehran-sponsored training and preparations of the Liberation Army of Kosovo (UCK — Ushtria Clirimtare e Kosoves — in Albanian, OVK in Serbian), as well as the transfer of weapons and experts via Albania, were being increased.... by early December 1997, Iranian intelligence had already delivered the first shipments of hand grenades, machine-guns, assault rifles, night vision equipment, and communications gear from stockpiles in Albania into Kosovo.... The force planning of Berisha and Dragaj envisages that their forces will be supplied with these weapons by the Muslim world and the West through Albania, very much along the same principles of weapons supplies to Bosnia-Herzegovina in the early 1990s."
Yossef Bodansky, Director of the Congressional Task Force
on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare of the US House of Representatives
Italy Becomes Iran’s New Base For Terrorist Operations
Defence and Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, February 1998

"In Bosnia-Herzegovina, goaded by a zealous and activist Clinton Administration, the West and the UN actively supported and facilitated the rise of the Bosnian Muslim Administration. Officially, the Clinton Administration decided to 'look the other way' as Iran and its Islamist allies delivered weapons and volunteers to the Bosnian Muslim forces in violation of the UN embargo..... If in B-H, the Clinton Administration could claim that faced with the plight of the Bosnian Muslim civilian population (in itself a fallacy) the US had no alternative but to tacitly permit the flow of Iran-dominated Islamist aid to B-H, there are no comparable circumstances concerning Kosovo. Yet, with the ramifications of Iran's lingering hold over Sarajevo clear, the Clinton White House is actively encouraging the surge of a 'Kosovo crisis' while knowing full well that the main local Muslim forces are dominated by Islamist terrorist forces and sponsored by Iran. There is neither a humanitarian crisis in progress, nor a reason for not knowing the outcome of the rise of militant Islamism, to warrant such a policy."
Yossef Bodansky, Director of the Congressional Task Force
on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare of the US House of Representatives
Italy Becomes Iran’s New Base For Terrorist Operations
Defence and Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, February 1998

"The spate of UCK [KLA] terrorism during the Fall of 1997 . . . should be considered intentional provocations against the Serbian police aimed to elicit a massive retaliation that would in turn lead to a popular uprising. Thus, the ongoing terrorism campaign in Kosovo should be considered the initial phases in implementing the call for an uprising. Iran-sponsored activists have already spread the word through Kosovo that the liberation war has already broken out. If current trends prevail, the increasingly Islamist UCK will soon become the main factor in overturning the long-term status quo in the region. Concurrently, the terrorist activities have become part of everyday life throughout Kosovo. Given the extent of the propaganda campaign and the assistance provided by Iran, the spread of terrorism should indeed be considered the beginning of an armed rebellion that threatens a major escalation.... there are indications that the UCK’s radical wing is considering the assassination of both Rugova and Fehmi Agani, the LDK deputy chairman, and blaming Belgrade for the killings. The assassination of Rugova would also be bound to push a large segment of the Albanian population in Kosovo into active participation in an armed struggle.....by late November [1997], the armed struggle, that is, terrorism and subversion, had become the primary instrument in the Kosovo-Albanian struggle for the liberation of Kosovo.... Adopting IRA-style tactics, masked and armed representatives of the UCK have begun showing up at funerals...."
Yossef Bodansky, Director of the Congressional Task Force
on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare of the US House of Representatives
Italy Becomes Iran’s New Base For Terrorist Operations
Defence and Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, February 1998

"Washington’s growing interest in the Kosovo problem should be examined in view of Kosovo’s seemingly inevitable slide to an armed conflict led and dominated by the Iran-sponsored UCK. For the Clinton Administration, Kosovo is the next point of pressure on Belgrade, as demonstrated in the sudden and unwarranted inclusion of the subject in the Dayton II conference on B-H. Given the concurrent Iranian dominance over the rising Islamist subversive and terrorist movement in Kosovo and Albania, is this a mere coincidence or is there another round of tacit cooperation between Washington and Tehran?"
Yossef Bodansky, Director of the Congressional Task Force
on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare of the US House of Representatives
Italy Becomes Iran’s New Base For Terrorist Operations
Defence and Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy, February 1998

"I know a terrorist when I see one and these men are terrorists."
United States special envoy to the Balkans, Robert Gelbard, speaking about the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) 1998
BBC Online, 28 June 1998

"The Kosovo Liberation Army 'began on the radical fringe of Kosovar Albanian politics, originally made up of diehard Marxist-Leninists (who were bankrolled in the old days by the Stalinist dictatorship next door in Albania) as well as by descendants of the fascist militias raised by the Italians in World War II' ['Fog of War -- Coping With the Truth About Friend and Foe: Victims Not Quite Innocent,' New York Times, 3/28/99]. The KLA made its military debut in February 1996 with the bombing of several camps housing Serbian refugees from wars in Croatia and Bosnia [Jane's Intelligence Review, 10/1/96]. The KLA (again according to the highly regarded Jane's,) 'does not take into consideration the political or economic importance of its victims, nor does it seem at all capable of seriously hurting its enemy, the Serbian police and army. Instead, the group has attacked Serbian police and civilians arbitrarily at their weakest points. It has not come close to challenging the region's balance of military power' [Jane's, 10/1/96]. The group expanded its operations with numerous attacks through 1996 but was given a major boost with the collapse into chaos of neighboring Albania in 1997, which afforded unlimited opportunities for the introduction of arms into Kosovo from adjoining areas of northern Albania, which are effectively out of the control of the Albanian government in Tirana. From its inception, the KLA has targeted not only Serbian security forces, who may be seen as legitimate targets for a guerrilla insurgency, but Serbian and Albanian civilians as well. In view of such tactics, the Clinton Administration's then-special envoy for Kosovo, Robert Gelbard, had little difficulty in condemning the KLA (also known by its Albanian initials, UCK) in terms comparable to those he used for Serbian police repression: ' 'The violence we have seen growing is incredibly dangerous,' Gelbard said. He criticized violence 'promulgated by the (Serb) police' and condemned the actions of an ethnic Albanian underground group Kosovo Liberation Army (UCK) which has claimed responsibility for a series of attacks on Serb targets. 'We condemn very strongly terrorist actions in Kosovo. The UCK is, without any questions, a terrorist group,' Gelbard said.' [Agence France Presse, 2/23/98] Mr. Gelbard's remarks came just before a KLA attack on a Serbian police station led to a retaliation that left dozens of Albanians dead, leading in turn to a rapid escalation of the cycle of violence. Responding to criticism that his earlier remarks might have been seen as Washington's 'green light' to Belgrade that a crack-down on the KLA would be acceptable, Mr. Gelbard offered to clarify to the House Committee on International Relations: 'Questioned by lawmakers today on whether he still considered the group a terrorist organization, Mr. Gelbard said that while it has committed 'terrorist acts,' it has 'not been classified legally by the U.S. Government as a terrorist organization.' ' [New York Times, 3/13/98] The situation in Kosovo has since been transformed: what were once sporadic cases of KLA attacks and often heavy-handed and indiscriminate Serbian responses has now become a full-scale guerrilla war. That development appeared to be a vindication of what may have been the KLA's strategy of escalating the level of violence to the point where outside intervention would become a distinct possibility. Given the military imbalance, there is reason to believe the KLA -- which is now calling for the introduction of NATO ground troops into Kosovo [Associated Press, 3/27/99] -- may have always expected to achieve its goals less because of the group's own prospects for military success than because of a hoped-for outside intervention: As one fighter put it, 'We hope that NATO will intervene, like it did in Bosnia, to save us' ['Both Sides in the Kosovo Conflict Seem Determined to Ignore Reality,' New York Times, 6/22/98]."
The Kosovo Liberation Army: Does Clinton Policy Support Group with Terror, Drug Ties?
Republican Policy Committee, United States Senate, 31 March 1999

"...'Moral Combat - Nato at War' shows how the United States, which had described the KLA as 'terrorist', now sought to form a relationship with it [in Kosovo]..."
Behind the Kosovo crisis
BBC Online, 12 March 2000

"I read the latest reports concerning a recent Executive Order that hands the CIA a black bag in the Balkans for engineering a military coup in Serbia, for interrupting communications, for tampering with bank accounts, freezing assets abroad and training the Kosovo Liberation Army in terrorist tactics, such as how to blow up buildings. How this is intended to help establish a democracy in Serbia or Kosovo hasn't been explained. Nor has the failure to substantially demilitarize the KLA been explained. Nor has the reverse ethnic cleansing taking place in Kosovo by the KLA while NATO rules the province been explained."
Congressman Dennis Kucinich
'What I Learned from the War,'
The Progressive, Vol 63, No.8, August 1999

"American intelligence agents have admitted they helped to train the Kosovo Liberation Army [KLA] before Nato's bombing of Yugoslavia. The disclosure angered some European diplomats, who said this had undermined moves for a political solution to the conflict between Serbs and Albanians... Several KLA leaders had the mobile phone number of General Wesley Clark, the Nato commander....European diplomats then working for the OSCE claim it was betrayed by an American policy that made airstrikes inevitable. Some have questioned the motives and loyalties of William Walker, the American OSCE head of mission....Some European diplomats in Pristina, Kosovo's capital, concluded from Walker's background that he was inextricably linked with the CIA."
CIA aided Kosovo guerrilla army
Sunday Times , 12 March 2000

"Ambassador Walker was not just working for the OSCE. He was part of the American diplomatic policy that was occurring which had vilified Slobodan Milosevic, demonised the Serbian Administration and generally was providing diplomatic support to the UCK or the KLA leadership."
Moral Combat - NATO at War
BBC 2, 12 March 2000

"Narcotics smuggling has become a prime source of financing for civil wars already under way -- or rapidly brewing -- in southern Europe and the eastern Mediterranean, according to a report issued here this week. The report, by the Paris-based Observatoire Geopolitique des Drogues, or Geopolitical Observatory of Drugs, identifies belligerents in the former Yugoslav republics and Turkey as key players in the region's accelerating drugs-for-arms traffic. Albanian nationalists in ethnically tense Macedonia and the Serbian province of Kosovo have built a vast heroin network, leading from the opium fields of Pakistan to black-market arms dealers in Switzerland, which transports up to $2 billion worth of the drug annually into the heart of Europe, the report says. More than 500 Kosovo or Macedonian Albanians are in prison in Switzerland for drug- or arms-trafficking offenses, and more than 1,000 others are under indictment. The arms are reportedly stockpiled in Kosovo for eventual use against the Serbian government in Belgrade, which imposed a violent crackdown on Albanian autonomy advocates in the province five years ago."
Separatists Supporting Themselves with Traffic in Narcotics
San Francisco Chronicle, 10 June 1994

"Some members of the Kosovo Liberation Army, which has financed its war effort through the sale of heroin, were trained in terrorist camps run by international fugitive Osama bin Laden - who is wanted in the 1998 bombing of two U.S. embassies in Africa that killed 224 persons, including 12 Americans. The KLA members, embraced by the Clinton administration in NATO's 41-day bombing campaign to bring Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic to the bargaining table, were trained in secret camps in Afghanistan, Bosnia-Herzegovina and elsewhere, according to newly obtained intelligence reports. The reports also show that the KLA has enlisted Islamic terrorists -- members of the Mujahideen -- as soldiers in its ongoing conflict against Serbia, and that many already have been smuggled into Kosovo to join the fight... The intelligence reports document what is described as a 'link' between bin Laden, the fugitive Saudi millionaire, and the KLA -- including a common staging area in Tropoje, Albania, a center for Islamic terrorists. The reports said bin Laden's organization, known as al-Qaeda, has both trained and financially supported the KLA. Jane's International Defense Review, a highly respected British Journal, reported in February that documents found last year on the body of a KLA member showed that he had escorted several volunteers into Kosovo, including more than a dozen Saudi Arabians. Each volunteer carried a passport identifying him as a Macedonian Albanian.... Last year, while State Department officials labeled the KLA a terrorist organization, saying it bankrolled its operations with proceeds from the heroin trade and from loans from known terrorists like bin Laden, the department listed the group as an 'insurgency' organization in its official reports. The officials charged that the KLA used terrorist tactics to assault Serbian and ethnic Albanian civilians in a campaign to achieve independence. The KLA's involvement in drug smuggling as a means of raising funds for weapons is long-standing. Intelligence documents show it has aligned itself with an extensive organized crime network in Albania that smuggles heroin to buyers throughout Western Europe and the United States. Drug agents in five countries believe the cartel is one of the most powerful heroin smuggling organizations in the world."
KLA rebels train in terrorist camps
Washington Times, 4 May 1999

"In Milosevic's trial, German reporter Franz Josef Hutsch testified that ethnic Albanian rebels in Kosovo had been harassing Serb troops to provoke an 'excessive reaction' against Kosovo civilians and hasten international intervention. Milosevic is accused of unleashing Serb troops who committed atrocities while quashing a rebellion in Kosovo, a southern province of Serbia dominated by ethnic Albanians. Eventually NATO launched a 78-day bombing campaign to force the Serbs to end the crackdown. Milosevic has described the Kosovo war as a defensive action against terrorists. Hutsch said he spent months with the Kosovo Liberation Army, the KLA, beginning in September 1998. He described it as a well-organized force, assisted by officers from Algeria, Egypt, Saudi Arabia and Morocco who had trained somewhere in Turkey. To finance the purchase of increasingly sophisticated weapons, he said, the KLA ran smuggling operations of drugs and women who were being forced into prostitution in Europe. Hutsch testified that the KLA's tactics during the cease-fire in late 1998 included staging hit-and-run attacks on Serb patrols designed to ''force them into a trap and try to provoke an excessive reaction.' He said they also tried to lure the Serbs into attacking civilians in early 1999 so the images would be shown during peace negotiations taking place in Rambouillet, France."
Milosevic returns to court, again seeking right to represent himself
Associated Press, 12 October 2004

"Backing the KLA is simply insane. My contacts within the DEA are quite frankly terrified, but there’s not much they can say without risking their jobs. These guys [the KLA] have a network that’s active on the streets of this country [US]. The Albanian mob is a scary operation. In fact, the Mafia relied on Albanian hitmen to carry out a lot of their contracts. They’re the worst elements of society that you can imagine, and now, according to my sources in drug enforcement, they’re politically protected. It’s the same old story. Ten years ago we were arming and equipping the worst elements of the Mujahadeen in Afghanistan — drug traffickers, arms smugglers, anti-American terrorists. We later paid the price when the World Trade Center was bombed, and we learned that some of those responsible had been trained by us. Now we’re doing the same thing with the KLA, which is tied in with every known middle and far eastern drug cartel. Interpol, Europol, and nearly every European intelligence and counter-narcotics agency has files open on drug syndicates that lead right to the KLA, and right to Albanian gangs in this country."
Michael Levine, former US Drug Enforcement Administration counter-narcotics officer
New American, Vol. 15, No. 11, May 24, 1999

"America has started secret negotiations with the Kosovo Liberation Army about supplying it with specialist weapons to attack Serb ground forces in Kosovo...The strategy...has echoes of earlier covert operations by Washington to supply arms to the Contras or the Bosnian Muslims... the State Department, which last year was willing to accept descriptions of the KLA as terrorist criminals but now appears to view it as an organisation it can do business with."
US opens secret talks on arming KLA
Daily Telegraph, 12 April 1999

"British and American special forces teams are working undercover in Kosovo with the rebel Kosovo Liberation Army to identify Serbian targets for Nato bombing raids....The SAS is also advising the rebels at their strongholds in northern Albania, where the KLA has launched a major recruitment and training operation. According to high-ranking KLA officials, the SAS is using two camps near Tirana, the Albanian capital, and another on the Kosovan border to teach KLA officers how to conduct intelligence-gathering operations on Serbian positions....It is the latest evidence of the growing co-operation between Nato and the KLA, a movement once denounced by the West's leaders as 'terrorists'...alliance spokesman James Shea enthusiastically predicted that the KLA would 'rise from the ashes' and play an increasingly important role in the current campaign... The alliance is now quietly drafting the KLA into its war against Slobodan Milosevic, the Serbian leader. It is even considering plans to train them and ease the arms embargo on Yugoslavia to supply them with weapons such as mortars and rocket-propelled grenades.... They are negotiating for a long-term training deal with Military and Professional Resources International, a mercenary company run by former American officers who operate with semi-official approval from the Pentagon and played a key role in building up Croatia's armed forces... From their remaining enclaves within Kosovo and reconnaissance missions staged from Albania, the rebels already use satellite and cellular telephones to provide Nato with details on Serbian targets."
SAS teams move in to help KLA 'rise from the ashes'
Sunday Telegraph, 18 April 1999

Britain's Involvement

"Pakistani intelligence chiefs are concerned that General Musharraf may jeopardise their relationship with British intelligence agencies after claiming that a convicted terrorist was once an MI6 informer. The President outlines the role played by a former London public schoolboy, Omar Sheikh, in the kidnap and murder of Daniel Pearl, the Wall Street Journal reporter, in February 2002. General Musharraf says that Sheikh, who orchestrated the abduction, was recruited by MI6 while he was studying at the London School of Economics and sent to the Balkans to take part in jihad operations there. He alleges that Sheikh later double-crossed British intelligence. 'At some point he probably became a rogue or double agent,' General Musharraf says."
'America paid us to hand over al-Qaeda suspects'
London Times, 25 September 2006

"Omar Sheikh is a British national born to Pakistani parents in London on December 23, 1973. His early education was in the United Kingdom, although he also spent four years at Lahore’s prestigious Aitchison College. He then went to the London School of Economics (LSE) but dropped out before graduation. It is believed in some quarters that while Omar Sheikh was at the LSE he was recruited by the British intelligence agency MI6. It is said that MI6 persuaded him to take an active part in demonstrations against Serbian aggression in Bosnia and even sent him to Kosovo to join the jihad. At some point he probably became a rogue or double agent."
President Purvez Musharraf of Pakistan
How we found Pearl buried in ten pieces
London Times, 26 September 2006

"The US government’s favourite private security service has trained both sides in the latest ethnic flare-up in the Balkans. Only two years ago the rag-tag Kosovar Albanian rebels were taken in hand by the Virginia-based company of professional soldiers, Military Professional Resources Incorporated. An outfit of former US marines, helicopter pilots and special forces teams, MPRI’s missions for the US government have run from flying Colombian helicopter gunships to supplying weapons to the Croatian army. Among its most recent tasks - training the Macedonian army, now shooting it out with the Albania guerrillas in and around the farming village of Tanusevce, just across the border from Kosovo...in 1998 and 1999 MPRI was tasked with training and assisting the ethnic Albanians of the Kosovo Liberation Army in their struggle against the oppressive regime of the then-president, Slobodan Milosevic. MPRI sub-contracted some of the training programme to two British private security companies, ensuring that between 1998 and June 1999 the KLA was being armed, trained and assisted in Italy, Turkey, Kosovo and Germany by the Americans, the German external intelligence service and former and serving members of Britain’s 22 SAS Regiment... Two years later, and a wave of ethnic cleansing of Kosovo’s remaining Serbs at the hands of ethnic Albanians has left nearly 1,000 people murdered in 18 months."
Private US firm training both sides in Balkans
The Scotsman, March 02, 2001

"KLA members were trained by the [British] SAS before it was disbanded after the Kosovan war..."
Albanians held for massacre of Serbs
Guardian, 29 March 2001

"Serbia’s prime minister has called on the international community to react to a photo published in a Belgrade newspaper today showing a group of people dressed in uniforms of the outlawed Kosovo Liberation Army [KLA] holding a number of severed heads. Zoran Zivkovic used the continuation of a no confidence debate in his government today to appeal to the United Nations mission in Kosovo, the multinational peacekeeping force and the international community as a whole to identify the people in the photo in Vecernje Novosti, arrest and convict them. 'We kept being told in The Hague [war crimes tribunal] that there’s no evidence of war crimes committed in Kosovo by the Albanian side', said Zivkovic. 'Now we have a document and it takes just a little effort to identify the people in the photo and convict them'..”.
PM calls for action on KLA photo
B92, 3 November 2003

"The bombing of Yugoslavia in the spring of 1999 [was] allegedly to stop ethnic cleansing... The Balkans, since the end of the bombing, have been in constant turmoil caused by the KLA terrorist activities.... As early as 1998, the U.S. State Department listed the KLA as a terrorist organization financing its operations with money from the international heroin trade and funds supplied from Islamic countries and individuals, including Osama bin Laden. This did not stop the United States from arming and training KLA members in Albania and in the summer of 1998 sending them back into Kosovo to assassinate Serbian mayors, ambush Serbian policemen and intimidate hesitant Kosovo Albanians. Bin Laden and radical Muslim groups have been deeply involved in the Balkans since the civil wars in Bosnia from 1992 to 1995. Despite a UN arms embargo and with the knowledge and support of the United States, arms, ammunition and thousands of Mujahideen fighters were smuggled into Bosnia to help the Muslims.... He and his al-Qaeda network were also active in Kosovo, and KLA members trained in his camps in Afghanistan and Albania...."
James Bissett, former Canadian ambassador to Yugoslavia
War on Terrorism Skipped the KLA
National Post (Canada), 13 November 2001

"The U.S. State Department listed the KLA as a terrorist organization, indicating that it was financing its operations with money from the international heroin trade and loans from Islamic countries and individuals, among them allegedly Usama bin Laden. Another link to bin Laden is the fact that the brother of a leader in an Egyptian Jihad organization and also a military commander of Usama bin Laden, was leading an elite KLA unit during the Kosovo conflict."
US Congress, Testimony of Ralf Mutschke of Interpol's Criminal Intelligence Division,
to the House Judicial Committee, 13 December 2000

"The BBC's Nik Gowing in Davos has been shown evidence by foreign diplomatic sources that the guerrillas [i.e the KLA] now have several hundred fighters in the 5km-deep military exclusion zone on the boundary between Kosovo and the rest of Serbia. The sources said that:
- Certain Nato-led K-For forces were not preventing the guerrillas taking mortars and other weapons into the exclusion zone
- The guerrilla units had been able to hold exercises there, including live-firing of weapons, despite the fact that K-For patrols the zone
-
Western special forces were still training the guerrillas, as a result of decisions taken before the change of government in Yugoslavia
- Guerrilla leaders had now taken over from political leaders in many Albanian villages within the zone
- They now controlled the heights overlooking the villages of Presevo and Bujanovac ..."

Kostunica warns of fresh fighting
BBC Online, 29 January 2001

"The Balkans´ uncharacteristically silent exit from the world stage as the most prominent international hot spot of the last decade belies its status as a major recruiting and training center of Osama bin Laden´s al Qaeda network. By feeding off the region´s impoverished republics and taking root in the unsettled diplomatic aftermath of the Bosnia and Kosovo conflicts, al Qaeda, along with Iranian Revolutionary Guard-sponsored terrorists, have burrowed their way into Europe´s backyard. For the past 10 years, the most senior leaders of al Qaeda have visited the Balkans, including bin Laden himself on three occasions between 1994 and 1996. The Egyptian surgeon turned terrorist leader Ayman Al-Zawahiri has operated terrorist training camps, weapons of mass destruction factories and money-laundering and drug-trading networks throughout Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Bosnia. This has gone on for a decade. Many recruits to the Balkan wars came originally from Chechnya, a jihad in which Al Qaeda has also played a part. These activities have been exhaustively researched by Yossef Bodansky, the former director of the U.S. House of Representatives´ Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare.... The overnight rise of heroin trafficking through Kosovo -- now the most important Balkan route between Southeast Asia and Europe after Turkey -- helped also to fund terrorist activity directly associated with al Qaeda and the Iranian Revolutionary Guard. Opium poppies, which barely existed in the Balkans before 1995, have become the No. 1 drug cultivated in the Balkans after marijuana. Operatives of two al Qaeda-sponsored Islamist cells who were arrested in Bosnia on Oct. 23 were linked to the heroin trade, underscoring the narco-jihad culture of today´s post-war Balkans.... By early 1998 the U.S. had already entered into its controversial relationship with the KLA to help fight off Serbian oppression of that province. While in February the U.S. gave into KLA demands to remove it from the State Department´s terrorism list, the gesture amounted to little. That summer the CIA and CIA-modernized Albanian intelligence (SHIK) were engaged in one of the largest seizures of Islamic Jihad cells operating in Kosovo. Fearing terrorist reprisal from al Qaeda, the U.S. temporarily closed its embassy in Tirana and a trip to Albania by then Defense Secretary William Cohen was canceled out of fear of an assassination attempt. Meanwhile, Albanian separatism in Kosovo and Metohija was formally characterized as a 'jihad' in October 1998 at an annual international Islamic conference in Pakistan. Nonetheless, the 25,000 strong KLA continued to receive official NATO/U.S. arms and training support and, at the talks in Rambouillet, France, then Secretary of State Madeleine Albright shook hands with 'freedom fighter' Hashim Thaci, a KLA leader. As this was taking place, Europol (the European Police Organization based in The Hague) was preparing a scathing report on the connection between the KLA and international drug gangs. Even Robert Gelbard, America´s special envoy to Bosnia, officially described the KLA as Islamic terrorists. With the future status of Kosovo still in question, the only real development that may be said to be taking place there is the rise of Wahhabi Islam -- the puritanical Saudi variety favored by bin Laden -- and the fastest growing variety of Islam in the Balkans."
Al Qaeda´s Balkan Links
Wall St Journal, 11 January 2001

"An interesting comparison can be made with the bombing of Yugoslavia eight years later. On 23 February 1998, the US special envoy to the Balkans, Robert Gelbard, described the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) as 'without question a terrorist organization', thus giving overt moral and political support to th Yugoslav leader, Milosevic, to intensify his actions against the group. Gelbard was then given 'French leave'. Yet only four months later, the new envoy, Richard Holbrooke - who, perhaps ominously, has also been involved in Cyprus - was photographed, smiling, with a Kalashnikov-toting KLA terrorist. US policy had transmogrified, and the bombing began, following Yugoslavia's refusal to accept a clause in the so-called Rambouillet agreement - NATO's attempt to draft a peace document acceptable to the Serbs and those of Albanian stock in Kosovo. That clause, as Lord Carrington, former British foreign secretary and NATO secretary general later observed, would have allowed NATO to use Serbia as a part of the NATO organisation, a loss of sovereignty that was clearly unacceptable. In fact, the USA was clearly 'determined to prevent the emergence of an alternative Europe-wide security structure that could challenge its authority', and used NATO's fiftieth anniversary - when the NATO treaty was due to expire - as the occasion to re-assert NATO's influence over and above that of the UN."
Cyprus: A Modern History - William Mallinson

I.B.Tauris (27 May 2005)

Press Reports On False Claims Of Genocide By Serbs In Kosovo  - click here


5. US Backed Terrorism In Macedonia

"The United States special envoy to the Balkans, Robert Gelbard, held talks on Friday with two men who claim they are political leaders of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA). But only a few months ago Ambassador Gelbard described the KLA as a terrorist organisation. 'I know a terrorist when I see one and these men are terrorists,' he said earlier this year....Mr Gelbard's words were interpreted in the Yugoslav capital, Belgrade, as a green light for a security forces operation against the KLA and the special police conducted two raids in the Benitsar region in March....The Kosovo Liberation Army have become freedom fighters and national heroes for most ethnic Albanians. It is too early to say if the contacts between the US government and the KLA represent a shift in Washington's policies. But it is certainly a political earthquake in Kosovo and Serbia and will probably also irritate Moscow which is describing the KLA as terrorists. The KLA advocate not just a secession of Kosovo but the unification of all Albanians and the forming of the greater Albania, which would also include a part of Macedonia."
The KLA - terrorists or freedom fighters?
BBC Online, 28 June 1999

"The hidden agenda also consists in the mobilization of ethnic Albanians in Macedonia to support or become part of the KLA'S structure. In other words, Washington is 'financing ethnic warfare' as a means to achieving broad geopolitical, strategic and economic objectives using the KLA as proxy force."
Washington Finances Ethnic Warfare In The Balkans
Michel Chossudovsky Professor of Economics, University of Ottawa, 3 April 2001

"The United States secretly supported the ethnic Albanian extremists now behind insurgencies in Macedonia and southern Serbia. The CIA encouraged former Kosovo Liberation Army fighters to launch a rebellion in southern Serbia in an effort to undermine the then Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic, according to senior European officers who served with the international peace-keeping force in Kosovo (K-For), as well as leading Macedonian and US sources. They accuse American forces with K-For of deliberately ignoring the massive smuggling of men and arms across Kosovo's borders.... European officers are furious that the Americans have allowed guerrilla armies in its sector to train, smuggle arms and launch attacks across two international borders. ...One European K-For battalion commander told The Observer yesterday: 'The CIA has been allowed to run riot in Kosovo with a private army designed to overthrow Slobodan Milosevic...."
'CIA's bastard army ran riot in Balkans' backed extremists'
Observer, 11 March 2001

"Terrorism, including the latest terrorist act in Moscow, did not break out last September  when the United States was under attack, it started much earlier in Bosnia, Albania and Kosovo, said the former Czech Minister of Foreign Affairs Jiri Dientsbier, who was also the U.N. human rights special envoy. In Friday's interview with the Prague newspaper Pravo, Dientsbier said not only the media but also the politicians, who divided the terrorists into 'good ones' and 'bad ones', were doing service to terrorism. This is the case with the Chechens and the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) as well. '....The KLA engagement during the NATO-led air strikes on Yugoslavia enabled this organization to rule in Kosovo and mastermind and carry out attacks in Macedonia, southern Serbia and Montenegro', Dientsbier said.... Dientsbier says the Albanian extremists had also killed thousands of Albanians, adding that ongoing efforts to arrest those responsible turned inconsequent."
Dientsbier says terrorism is with international blessing
Makfax [Czech Republic], 30 October 2002

"A Canadian journalist has evidence that NATO is arming and equipping the ethnic Albanian guerillas who have waged a five-month long insurgency against the Macedonian government in Skopje. Scott Taylor, editor of Espirit de Corps magazine, says that on a visit to guerilla bunkers overlooking the besieged Macedonian city of Tetovo he was welcomed with shouts of, 'God bless America and Canada too for all they have provided to us.' Canada is a member of the US-led NATO coalition. Taylor says guerrilla commanders showed off their arsenal, which included side arms, sniper rifles and grenade launchers, all marked 'Made in the USA.' Says Taylor, one commander remarked that, 'thanks to Uncle Sam, the Macedonians are no match for us.'...  Taylor, who served in the Canadian Armed Forces, says NATO's support of the guerillas is so blatant "it is little wonder that the Macedonian majority have staged violent anti-NATO riots."
More signs NATO is behind ethnic Albanian attacks on Macedonia
Media Monitors Network, 23 August 2001

"The US Embassy in Belarus has admitted that it is pursuing a policy similar to that in 1980s Nicaragua, in which anti-government Contra rebels were funded and supported.... In an unusual admission, Michael Kozak, the US Ambassador to Belarus, said in a letter to a British newspaper that America's 'objective and to some degree methodology are the same' in Belarus as in Nicaragua, where the US backed the Contras against the left-wing Sandinista Government in a war that claimed at least 30,000 lives. Mr Kozak was not available for comment..... The ambassador's disclosure has coincided with moves by the Bush Administration to gain increased political influence in Eastern Europe and the Balkans and with reports in several European newspapers, which said that former US servicemen believed to be working for the CIA were escorted with Albanian guerrillas from a village in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia earlier this year."
US adopts 'Contras policy' in communist Belarus
London Times, 3 September 2001

"In the words of James Bissett, former Canadian Ambassador to Yugoslavia, the NATO campaign in Kosovo had the dual aim of first toppling Milosevic.... This also explains the reason why UN Resolution 1244 to disarm the Albanians has been blatantly disregarded by NATO. This would also explain the reason why the sealed indictment against the Albanian war criminal Agim Ceku has never been acted upon, even though it is in the Hague Court in the possession of Carla del Ponte. Ceku controls events in Southern Kosovo, from where he launches his operations in Macedonia over the border. He is not indicted because this would embarrass his NATO mentors. This would also explain why recently NATO intervened in Macedonia to secure the release of KLA extremists surrounded by the Macedonian army because 17 of their number were US advisors."
KOSOVO. THE TRUTH
Pravda, 14 August 2001

"Macedonia, with its large Albanian minority, was the KLA's next target. In February 2001], its forces moved against this small and newly independent democracy..... [In May 2001 Bush Administration] U.S. diplomat Robert Fenwick, ostensibly the head of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, in Macedonia, met secretly in Prizren, Kosovo, with the leaders of the Albanian political parties and KLA representatives. Macedonian officials were not invited. It was clear the United States was backing the Albanian terrorist cause. This was confirmed a month later, when a force of 400 KLA fighters was surrounded in the town of Aracinovo near the capital, Skopje. As Macedonian security forces moved in, they were halted on NATO orders. U.S. army buses from Camp Bondsteel in Kosovo arrived to remove all the heavily armed terrorists to a safer area of Macedonia. German reporters later revealed that 17 U.S. military advisors were accompanying the KLA terrorists in Aracinovo. In August, fearing the Macedonian forces might be able to defeat the KLA, U.S. Security Advisor Condoleeza Rice flew to Kiev and ordered the Ukrainian government to stop sending further military equipment to Macedonia. Since Ukraine was the only country supplying Macedonia with military assistance, the Macedonians realized continued resistance against the KLA terrorists, the EU and NATO was futile. Macedonia was forced to concede defeat and obliged to accept all the terrorist demands.
James Bisset, former Candian Ambassador to Yugoslavia
War on terrorism skipped KLA
National Post (Canada), 13 November 2001

"According to a report last week in the Halifax Herald the key to unraveling the bin Laden network may not be in Afghanistan at all – but in the Balkans. In July and August, just before the terror attack on the U.S., Albanian guerrillas tied to bin Laden gained control over 30 percent of Macedonia. The Macedonian military said the guerrillas include veterans of Bosnia, Kosovo and Chechnya. During a major guerrilla offensive, the Macedonians were able to contain the uprising with helicopter gunships acquired from Ukraine. But shortly after that, the helicopters came under attack from U.S.-made Stinger missiles.... But, listen to this from the Halifax Herald report: 'According to Macedonian intelligence operatives, the biggest obstacle to their investigative efforts is political pressure from NATO – including direct interference from the United States.'"
Our 'friends' in the Balkans
WorldNet Daily, 6 November 2001

"Senior ranking officials within Macedonia´s security department claim they have circumstantial evidence linking Osama bin Laden´s mujahedeen with the Albanian (UCK) guerrillas operating in Macedonia. 'We have already provided a substantial dossier to the CIA, and obtaining further proof of this terrorist connection is our ministry´s No. 1 priority,' confirmed a deputy director of the security department, Macedonia´s intelligence service.  Since March of this year, the Albanian UCK guerrillas have mounted a successful military offensive against a poorly equipped Macedonian security force. Following a number of violent clashes in July and August, the UCK has gained complete control of over 30 per cent of Macedonian territory.... From the outset of hostilities, the Macedonian military has said that mujahedeen troops, veterans of Bosnia, Kosovo and Chechnya, were in the ranks of the UCK. During a major guerrilla offensive in May, the Macedonian forces were briefly able to contain the Albanian insurrection through the use of modern helicopter gunships, acquired from the Ukraine. 'Shortly after that, our helicopter pilots reported being targeted by sophisticated (U.S.-made) Stinger (anti-aircraft) missiles,' said the Macedonian security department official. 'It is our information that the UCK received these Stingers from their mujahedeen connections in Afghanistan.'  The information forwarded to the CIA includes eyewitness statements from Macedonian civilians who had been detained by the Albanian guerrillas, along with photographs, and even some video footage captured from the UCK.  From its initial assessment, the security department estimates that as many as 120 mujahedeen fighters entered northern Macedonia from Kosovo between March and September. It is also believed that these extremist units were responsible for one of the worst atrocities committed by the UCK during the seven-month conflict. Last April, eight Macedonian soldiers were killed in the village of Vejce and their corpses were brutally mutilated, allegedly to provide 'trophies' for the mujahedeen. The Macedonian intelligence dossier supports earlier U.S. media reports that one of the Sept. 11 hijackers had been active in both Kosovo and Macedonia.  Yugoslavian officials have made further links to Balkan mujahedeen activity..... According to Macedonian intelligence operatives, the biggest obstacle to their investigative efforts is political pressure from NATO - including direct interference from the United States...since the police operations began on Oct. 4, NATO officials have been pressuring the Macedonian government to suspend their offensive. This apparent double standard by the U.S. and NATO has been heavily criticized in the Macedonian media. 'President George Bush claims he wants the world to unite in the war against terror,' said Slavko Manovske, the editor of Sun, a Macedonian weekly newsmagazine. 'However, it appears that the U.S. is being selective in defining which Muslim terrorists they intend to target.' Despite repeated requests for an interview, James Pardew, the U.S. special envoy to Macedonia, could not be reached for comment."
Signs point to a bin Laden-Balkan link
The Halifax Herald, 29 October  2001

" At the diplomatic level, the provision of military aid to the UCK is vehemently denounced, but on the ground in Macedonia, there is no denying the massive amount of materiel and expertise supplied by NATO to the guerrillas.... An abundant stock of sophisticated night vision goggles provides the UCK with a tremendous tactical advantage over the Macedonian security forces. By nightfall, the Macedonians are compelled to hole-up in their bunkers while the UCK roam with impunity throughout the Tetovo streets. 'Snake' Arifaj, a 22-year-old platoon commander with the UCK, proudly displayed his unit's impressive arsenal and said, 'Thanks to Uncle Sam, the Macedonians are no match for us.' Two weeks ago, there was a flurry of diplomatic protests filed by the Macedonian government when two US helicopters were observed delivering supplies to an Albanian village in the mountains above Tetovo. Officially, the US claimed their aircraft were only transporting vital 'humanitarian aid.' However, the local UCK commander 'Commandant Mouse' contradicted this statement and confirmed that the Americans had in fact delivered 'heavy mortars and ammunition' to the UCK. As proof of 'Mouse's' claim, Thursday, 16 August, the UCK began bombarding Tetovo with 120mm and 82mm mortars. Judging from the duration and intensity of the bombardment, which I witnessed, ammunition supply is not a problem for the UCK fighters.... Given such interference, it is little wonder that the Macedonian majority have staged violent anti-NATO riots, attacking embassies and McDonald's restaurants over the past several weeks."
Macedonia's Civil War: 'Made in the USA'
Canadian journalist Scott Taylor's report from Tetovo, 20 August, 2001
Antiwar.com, August 21, 2001

"The US also frequently used their tactical helicopters to gather intelligence inside Macedonia, without authorization from the Macedonian government. The sight of the US choppers prompted the ethnic Albanian villagers to cheer wildly, waving their arms to encourage 'their' airforce. Further illustration of this Albanian sentiment toward US aircraft can be found at the UCK brigade headquarters, just outside Tetovo. Here the security platoon wear T-shirts emblazoned with a Nike logo and the phrase, 'NATO Air, Just do it!'"
SCOTT TAYLOR: MACEDONIA'S CIVIL WAR: 'MADE IN THE USA'
Pravda, 21 August 2001

See also  Scott Taylor's book - "Diary of an Uncivil War: The Violent Aftermath of the Kosovo Conflict" published February 2002

"The United States secretly supported the ethnic Albanian extremists now behind insurgencies in Macedonia and southern Serbia. The CIA encouraged former Kosovo Liberation Army fighters to launch a rebellion in southern Serbia in an effort to undermine the then Yugoslav President Slobodan Milosevic, according to senior European officers who served with the international peace-keeping force in Kosovo (K-For), as well as leading Macedonian and US sources. They accuse American forces with K-For of deliberately ignoring the massive smuggling of men and arms across Kosovo's borders.... European officers are furious that the Americans have allowed guerrilla armies in its sector to train, smuggle arms and launch attacks across two international borders. ...One European K-For battalion commander told The Observer yesterday: 'The CIA has been allowed to run riot in Kosovo with a private army designed to overthrow Slobodan Milosevic...."
CIA's bastard army ran riot in Balkans' backed extremists
Observer, 11 March 2001

"Evans & Novak column reported in February that 'PresidentBush's plan to roll back U.S. involvement in Kosovo could be undermined by CIA Director George Tenet.' They noted that Tenet was a cheerleader for Bill Clinton's war against Yugoslavia and that his role included 'downplaying the truth about the Kosovo Liberation Army, which was in fact a terrorist organization.' With tensions high in the region, they said Tenet's role as chief intelligence gatherer made him an influential player in Balkans policy. Clinton's policy, implemented by Tenet, is responsible for the war that has now spread into Macedonia, a small nation next to Yugoslavia. Jeffrey Smith of the Washington Post has written an article describing how KLA guerrillas had plotted the war in Macedonia as far back as December 1999. They formed a new terrorist group, the National Liberation Army, but it was comprised largely of the KLA. Officially, the KLA is now supposed to be disbanded. Smith said that some of the weapons they have recently been using came from old KLA caches in Kosovo 'that NATO peacekeepers have not confiscated.' The bizarre situation has seen NATO peacekeepers depending on their old enemies, the Serb Army, to keep the new KLA contained in Kosovo. Evening news programs have shown NATO peacekeepers watching KLA fighters move through the mountains smuggling weapons. But Smith describes a fight between the guerrillas and U.S. Army Special Forces in Kosovo that resulted in one of the terrorists being wounded. It may be just a matter of time before U.S. military personnel come home in body bags. This doesn't seem to bother the Post. It ran a separate story arguing that the Bush Administration needs to expand its military involvement in Macedonia. It said our European allies were frustrated that the U.S. under President Bush seems to want to avoid taking casualties. Before the U.S. gets more deeply involved in a quagmire, it would be wise for the U.S. media to assume the stance of an adversary press and get to the bottom of how all of this happened. Jeffrey Smith's article was an excellent first step. But are we to believe this wasn't known to George Tenet of the CIA? When the CIA supported the KLA, we have to assume that the agency was aware that Kosovo wasn't the only objective of the KLA. Perhaps President Clinton didn't care about the terrorist organization's objectives for the entire region, but we have a new president in the White House who is supposed to have a different foreign policy. Yet he still has the same CIA director. President Bush has been maneuvered into continuing some aspects of the Clinton policy on Yugoslavia. He is now demanding that the new democratic government of Yugoslavia turn Slobodan Milosevic over to a U.N. criminal tribunal for a trial on war crimes charges. But some of the charges, such as involvement in the so-called Racak massacre, are so phony that some observers think Milosevic could beat the rap. The trial could make him into a martyr in Yugoslavia and destabilize the country's democratic government. Then we would have even more of a mess."
Another War in Yugoslavia
Media Monitor, 13 April 2001

"Terrorism, including the latest terrorist act in Moscow, did not break out last September  when the United States was under attack, it started much earlier in Bosnia, Albania and Kosovo, said the former Czech Minister of Foreign Affairs Jiri Dientsbier, who was also the U.N. human rights special envoy. In Friday's interview with the Prague newspaper Pravo, Dientsbier said not only the media but also the politicians, who divided the terrorists into 'good ones' and 'bad ones', were doing service to terrorism. This is the case with the Chechens and the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) as well. '....The KLA engagement during the NATO-led air strikes on Yugoslavia enabled this organization to rule in Kosovo and mastermind and carry out attacks in Macedonia, southern Serbia and Montenegro', Dientsbier said.... Dientsbier says the Albanian extremists had also killed thousands of Albanians, adding that ongoing efforts to arrest those responsible turned inconsequent."
Dientsbier says terrorism is with international blessing
Makfax [Czech Republic], 30 October 2002

"Islamist infiltration of the Albanian-speaking areas in the Balkans began even before the U.S.-led Kosovo intervention of 1999.... The upsurge of armed struggle for Kosovo independence in 1998 was accompanied by the unexpected emergence of Saudi-financed radicalism in the Albanian-majority zone of western Macedonia.   The syndrome is too widespread to be coincidental. Wherever local Muslim-majority communities resist post-Communist abuses – including Kosovo and Macedonia – Islamist radicals show up (beards, short pants, and all), allegedly in emulation of the Prophet Muhammad. The religious extremists assault moderate Muslims and Christians, dividing the forces of national freedom. The worst example has been that of Chechnya, where Saudi agents diverted a legitimate movement for autonomy within the Russian Federation in a jihadist direction, associating the cause of the Caucasian Muslims with al Qaeda.  Chechens have not consistently demanded complete separation....Macedonia, Kosovo’s southern neighbor, has also had to recognize its Wahhabi problem. A major daily in that country, Vecer (Evening) has reported that the three most prominent and historic mosques in the capital, Skopje, have been taken over by Wahhabi clerics. The paper disclosed that Wahhabis are active throughout Skopje. As previously noted, such foreign penetration has been visible in Macedonia since 1998, and while the Kosovar Albanians have resisted such infiltration, Macedonian leaders have allowed it to grow."
Kosovo Sees Continued Infiltration by Islamists
Weekly Standard (Blog), 2 February 2010

What Did The CIA's George Tenet
Know About The US Covert Operations In Yugoslavia? - Click Here


6. The Human Cost of US Backed Terrorism in the Balkans

"America took it upon itself to deliver arms directly to the Bosnian Muslim Army - the ABiH. These covert air drops began at the start of 1995.  The most well-documented were the drops at Tuzla in the north of Bosnia, where they were observed by members of the UN Nordic Battalion stationed close to the dropping zone.... these air drops took place in the face of Operation Deny Flight, the UN-imposed and Nato-policed no-fly zone over Bosnia.... The air drops were only the tip of the iceberg. A team of retired US officers planned the bloody Croatian 'liberation' of the Kraijina [which resulted in the ethnic cleansing of 200,000 Serbs] and the subsequent invasion of western Bosnia by the Croatian Army in the summer of 1995.... The scope of these activities included bugging UN Commanders and diplomats.... Senior European negotiators believe that with US backing the war could have ended two years earlier, but US desire to see the Serbs punished meant that they instead encouraged the Bosnian Government to continue fighting. The price in human terms? Over 15,000 dead and nearly 600,000 refugees."
Allies and lies
BBC Correspondent, 22 June 2001

"Defence analyst Tim Ripley believes that the US plot to [secretly] train and equip the Bosnian Muslims directly led to the terrible death-toll at Srebrenica later in 1995."
Allies and Lies
BBC Correspondent, 22 June 2001

HOT - READ FULL TRANSCRIPT OF 'ALLIES AND LIES' - CLICK HERE - HOT

"In 1995, Gen.Ceku was a player in Operation Storm, a covert Clinton-backed and MPRI-trained Croatian military operation that ethnically cleansed 200,000 Serbs from their homes in Croatia, killing thousands of civilians. Since taking over the KLA, Ceku has purged all of its moderates."
Defang the KLA
WorldNetDaily, 11 June 1999

"I mean Kosovo is just one of the points of destabilization of Yugoslavia... I want people to know the truth about what happened here.... The United States, for its own geopolitical reasons, deliberately encouraged the secessionist tendency among Albanians, used them against the Yugoslav government in order to destabilize the Balkans.... One book has a great hold over Kosovo Albanians. It's called the 'Canon of Leke Dukagjiniis'. It's a 15th century text that spells out codes of behavior. It goes into great detail on how to carry out blood feuds, when and whom it is proper to kill. It lays out the proper methods to use when killing, rules and regulations and so on. And this Canon is alive among Albanians today, especially since the fall of communism. This is an intensely tradition-oriented culture. Blood feud is a constant threat for Albanians.... By methodically killing those who refused to support them, the KLA was striking a deep fear among Albanians: the refusal of one Clan member to obey could lead to revenge against his entire clan. And now the KLA had NATO bombers to enforce blood feud. ... [the KLA] knew their own people, their fears, their traditions. They knew that if they could prove they were deadly, the clan leaders would fall in line. Now they live in a society dominated by gangsters. None of this would have happened were it not for years of effort by the United States."
Cedomir Prlincevic, President of the Jewish Community in Pristina, and Chief Archivist of Kosovo
Interview with 'Emperors Clothes', 3 December 2000

"....former Ottawa policeman Derek Chappell and his partner, Barry Fletcher, an ex-New Orleans cop, told me about their frustration [in 2003] in trying to control the ongoing inter-ethnic violence in this war-ravaged Balkan province [Kosovo].... Since NATO forces first entered Kosovo and Serbian security forces withdrew in June 1999, the majority of the terror attacks have been committed by Albanian extremists against Serbs and other ethnic minorities. The result has been the expulsion of nearly 240,000 non-Albanians from Kosovo.... In accordance with the 1999 peace agreement, the KLA was to be demilitarized and converted into a humanitarian assistance organization known as the Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC). The wartime leader of the KLA, General Agim Ceku, remains employed under UN direction as the head of the 'new' KPC. Of course, the KLA never did turn in its arsenal of heavy weapons and, under the guidance of Ceku, has remained a military formation numbering 2,000 regular forces and 3,000 reservists.... Despite public denials, the UN police are also aware of the fact that Ceku's KPC are directly involved with the acts of terrorism being conducted throughout the region.... When asked why the UN, to date, has not removed Ceku from his post and sent him to The Hague for his previous war crimes, the American police officer just shrugs and says 'politics.' This double standard no doubt will not sit well with Canadian soldiers who witnessed the atrocities committed by Ceku."
Extremist on UN's payroll
Halifax Herald (Canada), 2 June 2003

"As President Clinton prepares to visit to Kosovo, it is common to see and hear things here that don't fit with the tidy fictions proffered by NATO and White House officials....'The whole thing is a very bad joke,' explains a candid intelligence officer with the UN Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). ..Although NATO and UNMIK have been careful to avoid any public insinuation that the KLA may be prevaricating and holding back a significant stockpile of weapons, a spokesman for NATO estimates that peacekeepers confiscate about 100 illegal weapons, explosives and magazines of ammunition each day...Yet 'anyone who thinks that the violence will end once the last Serb has been driven out of Kosovo is living an illusion,' recently warned Veton Surroi, publisher of the main Albanian-language newspaper in Kosovo, Koha Ditore. 'The violence will simply be redirected against other Albanians.' Already, the senior officials of the KLA, who signed the disarmament agreement with NATO, have carried out assassinations, arrests and purges within their own ranks and of potential rivals. One campaign, in which as many as six KLA commanders were murdered, was reportedly directed by the KLA's top man, Hashim Thaci, and two of his lieutenants, Azem Syla and Xhavit Haliti....It still lurks everywhere in Kosovo. Ethnic Albanians complain that KLA henchmen regularly demand that shopkeepers pay 'liberation taxes' to finance the KLA's continued, and often illicit, activities. Even more worrisome, according to a soon-to-be-released report by the International Crisis Group, there are as many killings right now in Kosovo as there were before NATO intervened, when Yugoslav authorities were trying to smash the KLA....[the] goal of creating a multi-ethnic society in Kosovo is being undermined by the KLA in a multitude of ways, especially with the ethnic cleansing of not only Serbs but Gorans, Romas, Jews, Croats and even Albanians who are not strenuous enough in their intolerance of non-Albanians..."
The Real Kosovo
The Washington Times, November 23, 1999

"Jiri Dienstbier, UN Special Rapporteur on Human Rights for former Yugoslavia, has officially accused the disbanded Kosovo Liberation Army of ethnically cleansing Kosovo and working for the creation of Greater Albania, reported Zëri on page six. 'What the KLA is doing in Kosovo has nothing to do with retaliation for what Serb authorities did. It is about the realization of a plan of ethnic cleansing, for destabilization of the entire region and creation of a Great Albania,' said Dienstbier in a press briefing in Geneva.... In the report that he delivered to the UN Commission for Human Rights Wednesday, Dienstbier said that KFOR and UNMIK had reached none of their objectives in Kosovo. 'The only existing administration is the KLA which leads in different ways. One of those is the transfer of KLA fighters to the Kosovo Protection Corps under the auspices of UNMIK, and the other is to turn Kosovo into a European base for heroin,' said Dienstbier, adding that five tons of heroin per month go through Kosovo heading for Western Europe. He also said that there were no functioning courts and an insufficient number of international police officers, but that all KLA members who applied for the KPC were given uniforms automatically. According to Dienstbier, NATO SACEUR General Wesley Clark blames the UN for the situation in Kosovo, while the UN is saying that there would be a completely different situation in Kosovo if NATO hadn't officially recognized the KLA. The UN Special Rapporteur also said that it would be a big mistake if Kosovo would become independent, adding that already it is ethnically cleansed. Dienstbier warned the West not to support Hashim Thaçi and his associates, saying that in Kosovo there were enough normal and clever people who are against extremist solutions. According to Dienstbier, the only way to solve the Kosovo problem is to respect the UN Security Council resolution 1244. He also accused NATO of bombing innocent people and destroying industry, which was not producing weapons."
United Nations Interim Administration in Kosovo
Division of Public Information
, Local Media Monitoring, 31 March 2000

"Each day brings new reports of atrocities against Serbs... The rebels are governing the way Al Capone ran Chicago. Not just Serbs, but Albanian shopkeepers are looted.... Baton Haxhui, the editor of an Albanian newspaper, charges, 'Each day it is becoming more dangerous to think and speak independently'.... Terrorists with ties to Osama bin Laden running around with AK-47s and anti-tank weapons is bad enough. Worse, Thaci's boys aren't just killers and kleptos, but mafioso who are neck-deep in the drug trade.... More than 40 percent of the heroin reaching Western Europe moves through the province, which sits astride the major distribution route from Turkey to the West.... Belgrade had contained the problem. But under KLA management, Kosovo has become a drug lord's paradise.... Is it for this that we rained death and devastation on Yugoslavia for 11 weeks -- not for democracy or human rights or to end ethnic cleansing, but so Kosovo could be cleansed of non-Albanians and turned into a narcotics superstore under the benevolent direction of Hashim (aka, 'Snake') Thaci?"
Serbs suffer under western eyes
Jewish World Review Aug. 2, 1999 /20 Av 5759

".... the political war for Kosovo's future has only just started. And in the meantime, absolutely nobody here is getting any happier. The worst of it is, we don't know who to blame any more."
Kosovan Albanian student
Guardian, 29 May 2003

"Western pro-intervention forces are growing increasingly frustrated with The Hague, which they consider to be a weak tribunal. Prosecutor Carla Del Ponte's failure to win a total victory over Slobodan Milosevic -- the inquisition's big prize -- remains a sore spot.... UNMIK and Western governments are trying to avoid a perceived failure in Kosovo. The widely criticized mission has overlooked the elimination of non-Albanian minorities by vengeful militias, the destruction of priceless cultural relics (for example, over 110 Serbian Orthodox churches), and the explosive increase in the drug, weapon and cigarette business, as well as in human trafficking and prostitution.... Macedonia's civil war of 2001 was sustained and led by Albanian Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) veterans in Kosovo. Kosovo-based extremists from the Albanian National Army (ANA) have committed several deadly attacks this year, and have explicitly announced their desire to cleanse northern and western Macedonia of its 'Slav colonizers,' as they call Macedonians. In the end, while granting Kosovo independence might cause future regional upheaval and mafia rule in an economically unviable territory, the West views this as the least dangerous outcome. This is not the result of some grand and sagacious strategy. Rather, UNMIK is primarily looking out for its own safety. While Serbian and Macedonian concerns can be and have been ignored safely, the Albanians are different. Only the unexpected can be expected from them. Their long memories and long history of militancy are clearly intimidating the Western interim government. Appeasing them is thus essential for the safety of the current local administration -- but also for those Western leaders who believed that the NATO bombing campaign was a wise enterprise."
The Return of The Hague Tribunal and the West's Dilemma in Kosovo
The Power and Interest News Report, 1 November 2003

"Four years after it was 'liberated' by a NATO bombing campaign, Kosovo has deteriorated into a hotbed of organized crime, anti-Serb violence and al-Qaeda sympathizers, say security officials and Balkan experts. Though nominally still under UN control, the southern province of Serbia is today dominated by a triumvirate of Albanian paramilitaries, mafiosi and terrorists. They control a host of smuggling operations and are implementing what many observers call their own brutal ethnic cleansing of minority groups, such as Serbs, Roma and Jews. In recent weeks, UN officials ordered the construction of a fortified concrete barrier around the UN compound on the outskirts of the provincial capital Pristina. This is to protect against terrorist strikes by Muslim extremists who have set up bases of operation in what has become a largely outlaw province. Minority Serbs, who were supposed to have been guaranteed protection by the international community after the 78-day NATO bombing campaign ended in the spring of 1999, have abandoned the province en masse. The last straw for many was the recent round of attacks by ethnic Albanian paramilitaries bent on gaining independence through violence. Attacks on Serbs in Kosovo, a province of two million people, have risen sharply. According to statistics collected by the UN criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia at The Hague, 1,192 Serbs have been killed, 1,303 kidnapped and 1,305 wounded in Kosovo this year. In June, 1999, just after the NATO bombing, 547 Serbs were killed and 932 were kidnapped.... Serbs, who now make up 5% of the population of Kosovo, down from 10% before the NATO campaign, are the main targets of the paramilitary groups. Last week, Harri Holkeri, the province's UN leader, suspended two generals and 10 other officers, all members of an ethnic Albanian offshoot of the Kosovo Liberation Army, an insurgent group that emerged in the late 1980s to fight Serb security forces. Mr. Holkeri made his decision -- the strongest UN response to violence in the province so far -- after a UN inquiry into the Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC). Although the civilian defence organization is supposed to help local residents, over the past four years, its mostly ethnic Albanian military officials have been involved in violent confrontations with Serbs.The inquiry found last April's bomb attack on a Kosovo railway was the work of the KPC... Moreover, Kosovo has turned into one of Europe's biggest hubs for drug trafficking and terrorism. Al-Qaeda has set up bases in the province, which has become an important centre for heroin, cigarette, gasoline and people smuggling. The Albanian mafia and paramilitary groups, which security officials say are closely tied to al-Qaeda militants in the region, also oversee smuggling. More than 80% of Western Europe's heroin comes through Kosovo, where several drug laboratories have been set up, Interpol officials say."
Crime, terror flourish in 'liberated' Kosovo
National Post (Canada), 10 December 2003

"Though Gen. Clark is right to say the Albanians of Kosovo were liberated from Serb oppression, he says nothing about the Kosovo Serbs, 180,000 of whom had to run for their lives as the Albanians took their revenge. Far from ending ethnic cleansing in Kosovo, Gen. Clark's war only set off another round. The result has been to establish a new, ethnically cleansed, fiercely nationalistic mini-state in the Balkans -- and a pretty unpleasant one at that. Despite hundreds of millions of dollars in aid, and a NATO garrison of more than 12,000 troops, Kosovo today is still a poor, dangerous, unstable place. The remaining Serbs live in fear. Last summer, in a sign of the times, someone opened up with a machine gun on a group of Serb boys swimming in a stream, killing two and wounding four."
General Clark's Kosovo is a mess
Globe and Mail, 2 January 2004

"Kosovo continued its plunge into chaos yesterday as organised gangs of armed ethnic Albanians attacked Serb houses and churches across the province. Nato scrambled to deploy up to 1,000 additional troops to boost the 17,000-strong Nato-led Kfor peacekeeping force in an attempt to clamp down on renewed ethnic violence. Serbian Orthodox churches were burnt down in Kosovska Mitrovica and Vucitrn, while the UN police headquarters in the town of Prizren was also attacked. Smoke billowed from Serb houses set ablaze in the mixed town of Kosovo Polje, and burnt-out cars littered the streets of Pristina. UN troops and police came under sustained gunfire as they attempted to rescue beseiged Serbs. At least 22 people have been killed, and more than 500 injured in the worst outbreak of fighting since the Nato air-strikes in spring and summer 1999. All the deaths came in gunbattles, riots and street fighting on Wednesday.... Speaking from Pristina, Derek Chappell, a UN police spokesman, said: 'We have seen many acts of violence in the last four years. We have not seen a co-ordinated action, with this level of violence, when thousands of people from all regions of Kosovo attack Serbs, Serb property and Serb symbols such as churches, all on the same day. The targets are very specific.' Mr Chappell said: 'It is difficult to think that all this is spontaneous, although there is no evidence to link these events to any organisation.' The violence triggered fears that Kosovo could once again descend into war, possibly dragging in Serbia and destabilising the whole of the southern Balkans."
Ethnic killings send Kosovo towards war
London Times, 19 March 2004

"Nato's bombing campaign of 1999 has been held up as a successful humanitarian intervention. But the renewed unrest raises more awkward questions about the value of military force as a response to conflicts and crises".
Kosovo riots renew old debates
BBC Online, 19 March 2004

"A decade after hundreds of Arab fighters arrived in Bosnia to help local Muslims fight Serb and Croat forces, al-Qaeda may be building a Balkan launch pad for attacks on US allies in the region and targets in western Europe. So say many security experts and US officials, who are urging governments and peacekeeping forces in the region to focus more money and effort on neutralising what they call a growing terror threat on Europe's south-east flank. The chief of Bulgaria's secret service, Gen Kircho Kirov, this week became the latest senior official to warn of mounting danger to countries like Poland, Hungary, Romania and Bulgaria itself, whose deployment of troops to serve alongside US forces in Iraq have made them potential targets for attack by Islamic extremists.... Mr Yossef Bodansky, director of the Task Force on Terrorism and Unconventional Warfare in the US Congress, recently said: 'There is a terrorist network in Bosnia, composed of several well-trained and connected groups, which are directly or indirectly responsible to . . . Osama Bin Laden.' He claimed that men trained in Bosnia took part in suicide attacks in Baghdad last August, including the bombing of UN headquarters which killed 22 people.... Mr Bodansky and others say Bosnia has played a key role in boosting the international dimension of radical Islam. Foreign mujahedeen descended on the country in the early 1990s, after the withdrawal of Soviet troops from Afghanistan left them looking for a new enemy and just as Bosnia's Muslims became embroiled in bitter fighting with Serb and Croat forces."
Warning on Balkan bases for al-Qaeda
Irish Times, 16 January 2005

"A UN court in Kosovo has sentenced twelve ethnic Albanians to up to 30 years imprisonment for a revenge murder of five-member family in 2001 in one of the biggest trials in the province since the end of 1998-99 war. After 115 sessions and interrogation of some 50 witnesses during a 17-month long trial, a three-member UN panel in the district court in the eastern town Gnjilane sentenced the group to a total of 185 years imprisonment for the murder of ethnic Albanian Hamez Hajra, his wife and their three children.... The murder, believed to be a revenge against the victim -- allegedly considered as a collaborator with the Serb regime of former strongman Slobodan Milosevic -- shocked the province in 2001. The non-governmental group, the Humanitarian Law Center -- which monitors the trials in Kosovo -- has said it had evidence that Hajra had been supposed to testify in an unidentified war crimes case a day after he and his family were murdered brutally. However, this was not officially confirmed."
Kosovo court sentences 12 ethnic Albanians to 30-year imprisonment for revenge murder
AFP, 7 April 2005

"Sources within the NATO force command in the Serbian province of Kosovo have indicated that there is concern with the organization that the murder of four Serbs in Kosovo at the beginning of September 2005 was part of a greater plan by KLA (Kosovo Liberation Army) Albanians to begin to exacerbate disorder as part of the agitation for the interdependence of the area from Serbia. The riots in March and June 2004 resulted in 19 Serbian deaths, 900 injured and more than 4,000 people displaced from their homes. Many Serbian villages were destroyed. NATO fears have been strengthened by intelligence derived by Western countries on the existence of a strong Islamist network in Kosovo and Bosnia. Specifically, the German Federal Intelligence Service (BND) confirmed that the terrorist attacks in Madrid and London were organized by Islamic cells in Bosnia and Kosovo. The German press agency DDP (Das Deutschland-Portal) reported that the BND forewarned about the new terrorist attacks in London, which were carefully organized in Kosovo. The secret service of a Balkan country, which works actively in the area, reported to GIS that one of the most dangerous Islamist terrorists in the world, who was involved in the bombing attack against US and German soldiers in the beginning of 1990 in Germany, has returned to the area from Pakistan in early September 2005."
Jihadist Terrorist Leader Returns to the Balkans as Actions Intensify to Promote Kosovo Independence
Defense & Foreign Affairs Daily, 25 Ocotober 2005

"The War on Terror suffered a major blow three years before it was ever announced. It happened when the people of this democracy were misled into attacking the sovereign, emerging post-Communist democracy of Yugoslavia - over rumors of genocide and ethnic cleansing that proved false.  In so doing, we put the final touch on delivering the Balkans to al Qaeda. Today we are being asked to seal that historical blunder, whose repercussions seven years later are only escalating as those we 'rescued' turn their weapons against UN and NATO forces. While NATO spends most of its time rooting out terror cells in Kosovo and Bosnia—which served as the logistics bases for the London and Madrid bombings--the 2006 deadline to complete our eagerly forgotten debacle and determine the province’s final status is fast approaching.  To persuade the international community that only one final status will be acceptable, our Albanian "rescuees" have been stepping up the violence, a message to the West that it has only one possible exit strategy: grant unconditional independence--without border compromises with Serbia and without protection guarantees for what’s left of the non-Albanian minorities. If we allow this to happen, the peacekeepers will have to leave, and with them our eyes and ears in this terror haven and thruway. Still, congressional, State Department and UN sentiment seems to be tilting toward self-determination and the logic that if you’ve dug yourself into a hole, keep digging. Here is the size of that hole so far:  In November, 2001, what should have been an explosive article appeared in the European edition of the Wall St. Journal. Headlined 'Al Qaeda’s Balkan Links,' it read: 'For the past 10 years…Ayman al-Zawahiri [bin Laden’s second in command] has operated terrorist training camps [and] weapons of mass destruction factories throughout Albania, Kosovo, Macedonia, Bulgaria, Turkey and Bosnia…Though the Clinton administration had been briefed extensively by the State Department in 1993 on the growing Islamist threat in former Yugoslavia, little was done to follow through….'. Nor did a December 2003 article in Britain’s Sunday Mirror register a blip: 'Posing as members of the Real IRA, we…made our deal in Kosovo, a breeding ground for fanatics with al-Qaeda links. Our contact was the deputy commander of the Kosovo Liberation Army Niam Behljulji, known as Hulji…Hulji is said to supply terrorists across Europe and has been accused of massacring Serbian women and children during the war. He even posed grinning for a photograph, holding the severed head of one of his victims…Hulji said: ‘The plastics (Semtex) is the old type. No metal strips inside. It cannot be detected at airports.’ Hulji, according to the December issue of the Defense & Foreign Affairs Strategic Policy journal, is the man who supplied the Semtex-like explosives used in the London and Madrid attacks.  But to perpetuate the version of events we were sold from the beginning, all these connections have gone purposefully unmade by our nation’s 'journalists,' who were gung-ho supporters of our 1999 offensive against a historical ally and the culmination of our pro-terror policies in 1990s Yugoslavia. How many Americans know that the terrorists who carried out a spate of suicide attacks in Iraq in August 2004 were trained in Bosnia, or that al Qaeda’s top Balkans operative, al-Zawahiri’s brother Mohammed, had a high position with our terrorist KLA 'allies'? And who wants to bring up what former Canadian ambassador to Yugoslavia James Bissett has - that in Bosnia we'd fought alongside at least two of the 9/11 hijackers. The American public certainly won't hear that Bosnian charities have been raided for funding terrorism or that in 1992 Bosnia issued passports to Osama bin Laden and al-Zawahiri. We’ll never know that Bosnia today is the European 'one-stop shop' for all the terrorism needs - weapons, money, shelter, documents - of Chechen and Afghani fighters passing through Europe before heading to Iraq. Only Britain's Sky News has caught on, in December airing a segment entitled 'The Hidden Army of Radical Islam,' about Bosnia, where there is 'growing radicalization' and a base for Al Qaeda:  'In the heart of Europe, thousands of Arab fighters. Zenica [Bosnia], 1995. They come to wage holy war in support of the Bosnian Army. [Bosnian President Alija Izetbegovic shown welcoming the mujahadeen.] ...They committed many atrocities; the tapes Sky News has obtained include beheadings and signs of torture. …This isn’t just about history; it's about now. Western intelligence agencies are now pressing the Bosnians to look into exactly where these people are and what they are doing, and asking have any of these men been in contact with the three young Bosnian Muslims arrested last month on terrorism charges. ...In Sarajevo now the influence of Saudi ideas can be found all over the city. ...Radical Islam is attempting to plant deep roots in the community. …The seeds for change were planted back in 1995.'... The narration continues: 'There were some serious players sent to Bosnia, among them the man who planned 9/11, Khalid Sheikh Mohamed... The mujahadeen video shows their flag planted in Bosnia and speaks of spreading their jihad. ...Bosnia is a useful place to hide, plan and move. It's why some stay on.' The segment opens with the sentence, 'Hundreds of radical Islamic holy warriors [are] hiding in Bosnia, a decade after the end of the war. That statement underscores the West's big miscalculaton in the Balkans--that Bosnia was a self-contained war that had an end, rather than an early front in a war that was just unfolding. A similar picture began to emerge in Kosovo, where the late Wall St. Journal reporter Daniel Pearl was uncovering that 'Ethnic-Albanian militants, humanitarian organizations, NATO and the news media fed off each other to give genocide rumors credibility.' The anti-Serb propaganda which misled Americans throughout  the 90s and which Daniel Pearl was debunking continues to guide our perceptions and foreign policy in the Balkans today. But despite the media’s blackout on the subject of Balkans terror--including by Pearl's own Wall St. Journal--more and more Americans have been scratching their heads, wondering why we forcibly precluded the Serbs from doing in their own backyard what we’ve gone halfway around the globe to do.... For the past four years, the Hague's International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia has been finding what multiple international forensic teams have found--that claims of Serb 'atrocities' were exaggerated and often invented. It turns out we confused an attempt to create an Islamic 'Greater Albania' with one to create a 'Greater Serbia.' Surely if the latter were Slobodan Milosevic’s goal, he would have started by ethnically cleansing the nearly 300,000 Muslims of Serbia. Though he built his career in whatever dirty ways Tito's Yugoslavia allowed, he was the least of the Balkans' villains. For most Serbs, he was not a hero until he was called upon to defend an entire nation at the Hague. Now that Milosevic is dead, we are spared the worldwide riots that would have ensued had the tribunal mustered the courage to issue a verdict based on the evidence. And we can all sleep comfortably as the disproved charges are accepted as history.... In early 2001, German TV broadcast a report titled 'It Began with a Lie,' which publicized the findings of the observer force Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE)  that no genocide had taken place in Kosovo. The revelations set off a huge public debate in Germany, a member of the NATO coalition, after the public realized their country had been party to a hoax, and they held the responsible politicians’ feet to the fire.It’s long past time that we also set the record straight on what we 'achieved' in the Balkans -- and change course. As the world closes in on the Serbs again this year, we must stop bin Laden from establishing a terror state in Europe. We know from Madrid and London that we’ll pay for it with our own blood. In fact, we already have."
A Balkan Base For Al Qaeda?
FrontPageMagazine, 20 March 2006

"While the U.S. fights Muslim terrorists in Afghanistan and Iraq, the U.S. and the United Nations are helping allies of Muslim terrorists come to power in Kosovo, a province of Serbia. This is a foreign policy disaster in the making that you should hope and pray gets some immediate attention from the media. To illustrate the dimensions of the problem, Father Keith Roderick of Christian Solidarity International has testified that Albanian Muslims in Kosovo have been systematically destroying Christian churches and other sites in Kosovo and the Serbian Christian population in the province is being 'squeezed down to oblivion.' The evidence is on display in a new DVD, 'Days Made Of Fear,' directed, produced and distributed by Ninoslav Randjelovic. At the same time, Father Roderick also says that hundreds of new Mosques have been built in Kosovo over the last several years, financed mostly by Gulf Arab money. The excellent DVD consists of 8 different films, but the most explosive is 'Notes About the Rock,' on the destroyed and vandalized churches and monasteries in Kosovo. Many of the scenes captured on film are considered the only video documentation on this subject available. There is no question about the reason for the destruction. The churches were targeted by the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), also known by the acronym UCK. These initials are visible on the ruins, like a calling card. They openly advertise their anti-Christian Jihad, but our media pay no attention. Writing for the Byzantine Cultural Project and reviewing the DVD, Theodoros Georgiou Karakostas comments, 'The footage of ravaged and destroyed Serbian Churches and Monasteries is appalling. The DVD is a shocking affirmation that the American television Networks such as CNN, FOX, ABC, CBS, NBC, and the others are all lined up with the foreign policy establishment and are active practitioners of official censorship. I cannot recall seeing any of the horrifying footage on this DVD on American television.' He adds, 'The same U.S. media which continues to attack the Bush administration for lying about the Iraq war, continues to give Bill Clinton, Madeleine Albright, Richard Holbrooke, Wesley Clark, and Samuel Berger a pass for their destructive war on Yugoslavia. We should remember also that at the last Democratic National Convention in Boston two years ago, one of the top KLA men was an honored guest of John Kerry. 'The same U.S. media which was appalled by the Taliban's destruction of the 2,000-year-old Buddhist statues has nothing to say about the remarkable Serbian Orthodox churches and monasteries which have stood since the period preceding the Ottoman conquests, and which are being systematically destroyed.' Why are the media ignoring what is happening in Kosovo? One reason, as explained in the book, Media Cleansing: Dirty Reporting, is that the media reported the war wrong and now refuse to report who has really been victimized by it. Another factor is that the much-vilified neoconservatives got Kosovo wrong, too. As I noted in a Media Monitor, 'In 1999 the neocons supported the NATO war on Yugoslavia launched by President Clinton. That benefited a Muslim terrorist group, the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), with links to Osama bin Laden.' The neocons thought they were supporting a tougher and a new NATO. To compound this tragedy, the Bush Administration has continued the misguided Clinton policy on Kosovo. Let's remember that Clinton ordered U.S. military intervention in the Balkans against the Christian Serbs on the grounds that 'ethnic cleansing' and even 'genocide' were being waged against Serbia's neighbors. Most of that was hokum. Serbia, a U.S. ally in World War II, was being ruled by the communist Slobodan Milosevic, who was desperate to hold on to power in the former Yugoslavia, which included Serbia. While Milosevic was a problem, the Clinton 'solution' made the problem worse. Clinton gave the green light to military aggression against the Serbs and even ordered the CIA to provide support to the Kosovo Liberation Army, which was allied with Osama bin Laden and radical Islamists. The U.S. bombed Serbia and forced Milosevic, who was later turned over to a U.N. court, to capitulate. Milosevic recently died in a U.N. prison."
Christians Under Siege in Kosovo
Media Monitor, 1 June 2006

"Former Kosovo guerrilla leader Hashim Thaci, whose party favours speedy independence, claimed victory Sunday after crucial parliamentary elections in the disputed Serbian province. 'I thank all of those who helped our victory and the victory of Kosovo,' Thaci told a celebration of his Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK), which an unofficial tally showed had won 35 percent of Saturday's vote.... Hailing from Drenica, a central hotbed of separatism, Thaci became a student activist during the years of passive resistance to Belgrade's rule in the 1990s. Thaci walked away from the pacifist approach of late president Ibrahim Rugova and joined the KLA. At the end of the war, he helped to establish the PDK and has since sought to reshape his image as a more moderate leader. He would replace Agim Ceku, a former KLA commander who did not stand in the elections. The elections were massively boycotted by Serbs fiercely opposed to independence. Braving icy weather and fears of renewed violence, Albanians turned out with optimism for independence following years in limbo under the management of the UN mission in Kosovo (UNMIK). Legally still a Serbian province, Kosovo has been run by the UN since NATO's 1999 air war ended a months-long conflict that killed an estimated 10,000 Albanians and displaced hundreds of thousands. Fearing reprisal attacks, around two-thirds of its pre-war Serb population has since fled into Serbia proper. Most of the 100,000 Serbs who have remained in Kosovo heeded Belgrade's call for them to boycott the polls. Belgrade and Serb nationalists fiercely oppose independence for Kosovo, which they consider the cradle of their nation's history, culture and religion. 'Serbs are not voting in order to avoid giving legitimacy to elections organised by the provisional institutions in Kosovo,' the party of Serbian Prime Minister Vojislav Kostunica told Beta news agency in reference to Kosovo's parliament. NATO's 16,000 peacekeepers were bolstered by hundreds of reinforcements before the polls involving 1.5 million voters."
Ex-guerrilla claims Kosovo vote victory as independence looms
Agence France Presse, 16 November 2007

"As in Afghanistan and Iraq, Britain is, like the US, inclined to shoot first and plan afterwards. In Kosovo the outcome was to reward 'terrorist' separatists with a country of their own, albeit smaller than Wales. Men who, were they Serbs, would be hauled before a war crimes tribunal are now hailed in the west as heroes. For eight years Kosovo has enjoyed de facto autonomy under the protection of 17,000 Nato troops. These have allowed the regime to 'reverse-cleanse' the province of half its Serbs, including virtually all the 40,000 who once lived in the capital, Pristina. There are barely 200,000 left, just 10% of the population. Although the new prime minister, the former guerrilla Hashim Thaci, declares that "Kosovo is ready for independence", he cannot mean it. Kosovo is a Nato protectorate under UN administration, with more aid per head than any state in Asia or Africa. What Thaci wants is not independence but the luxuriant post-intervention dependency enjoyed by Bosnia, Sierra Leone and the embattled regimes in Baghdad and Kabul....Already guerrillas of the shadowy Albanian National Army are reportedly roaming the Serbia/Kosovo border, partly financed by a massive heroin trade. Already Serbian militias are arming against them, preparing to defend their compatriots under siege inside Kosovo. At best, resumed hostilities would mean further savage ethnic cleansing and a repartition of Kosovo. At worst, it would mean a long-running border war, with western troops sucked into defending Kosovan irregulars and Russia into defending Serbia's sovereignty. It is hard to imagine a worse outcome to Britain's glorious 'mission accomplished'."
It's hard to imagine a worse outcome for the Balkans
Guardian, 21 November 2007

"In total the country [Bosnia] has 1,600km of border, with 89 official crossings and 350 illegal ones. Figures show that 50 tonnes of heroin were smuggled from Afghanistan to the West through Sarajevo in 2006, but officials seized only 72 grams. Officials from the European Police Mission (EUPM) say this is shameful and describe Sarajevo as the shop window for smugglers. Drugs are smuggled from Afghanistan through Turkey, Serbia, Bosnia Herzegovina, Croatia, Slovenia and then into Italy, Germany and on to France and England. Hundreds of Eastern European women and children are also trafficked through Bosnia... The handful of organised criminal bosses who control parts of the region have been allowed to do so with immunity since they helped to defend Sarajevo during the ethnic conflict of the 1990s, bringing in guns and goods when the city was beseiged for three years. Treated as heroes by many, they have been allowed to build up power bases unchecked and are making millions trafficking people, drugs, cigarettes, guns and even explosives into Western Europe."
Outnumbered and in the dark: on patrol in badlands of the Balkans
London Times, 20 November 2007

"Money laundering, drug trafficking, and illegal weapons purchases are closely aligned and form an international trinity. In the Balkans this started with the criminalization of the Albanian Republic (Republika e Shqipërisë) and later Kosovo (Kosovo i Metohija in Serbo-Croatian /Kosovë in Albanian). Kosovo and Albania play an important role in the Eurasian Drug Corridor. The virtually independent Serbian province of Kosovo, primarily inhabited by ethnic Albanians, has a strong link with NATO-garrisoned Afghanistan. Kosovo is where part of the opium and heroin is forwarded from Afghanistan for entry into European markets and North America. Both Afghanistan and Kosovo are under Anglo-American domination, 'democratization,' undergoing 'the process of nation-building,' with US military bases on their respective territories and in the orbit of NATO. The Former Yugoslavian Republic of Macedonia and Albania which are saturated with illicit drugs and weapons are also part of the Eurasian Drug Corridor. The Eurasian Drug Corridor is where the flow of drugs and arms are facilitated. The drug and weapons streams also run in opposite directions. Weapons flow inwards into the Eurasian Drug Corridor, while illicit drugs or narcotics flow outwards. The Kosovo-centred illicit narcotics industry is worth billions of dollars a year in transport and exchange fees. The Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and its affiliates or extensions in Macedonia and Albania, and to some extent in Italy, Greece, and Turkey, play an important role in drug trafficking and smuggling. The KLA are middlemen in the narcotics industry. They in turn use part of the proceeds of the illegal narco-economy to arm themselves and to cement their control over numerous aspects of commerce and life in Kosovo, the Albanian-inhabited areas of western Macedonia, and Albania."
The legacy of the Opium Wars on Afghanistan
Daily Star (Bangladesh), 24 November 2007

"The threat of a new war in the Balkans loomed yesterday after the collapse of talks between Serbs and Albanians over the future of Kosovo. Three days of negotiations overseen by international mediators broke down, with both sides refusing to budge over their claims to the breakaway province. The Albanian majority of Kosovo has threatened to declare independence unilaterally. Serbia, which regards Kosovo as the cradle of its civilisation, said that this could cause unrest across the fragile Balkans, which still bear the scars of the conflict of the Nineties. 'The peace of the Balkans is very much at stake,' Frank Wisner, the United States envoy to the talks, said. 'It is a volatile region.' The breakdown of the talks leaves Kosovo in the same limbo that it has inhabited since the United Nations took over its administration in 1998 after Nato drove out Serbian troops.Tensions have already spilled over into violence several times this year. The United States, the European Union and Russia, who make up the 'troika' of international mediators, now have until December 10 to give their recommendations for a settlement to the United Nations Security Council..... Fatmir Sejdiu, the President of Kosovo, promised that an independence declaration would come 'very quickly.' Boris Tadic, the Serbian President, vowed to 'annul' any such announcement. 'Serbia will not accept the independence of Kosovo,' he said. Serbia has cautioned that international recognition of the independence of Kosovo could cause the Serb enclave of northern Kosovo to secede and spark a secession movement among the Serbs of Bosnia. It has also threatened to mount an economic blockade. Both sides said that they were committed to a non-violent outcome, but Albanian militia are said to be patrolling the boundary between Kosovo and Serbia, while Serbian militia are said to be arming themselves to defend their Kosovan compatriots. Mr Wisner warned that a settlement would have to come soon. 'The status quo over Kosovo is not sustainable,' he said. With independence all but inevitable, diplomatic efforts are now likely to focus on Hashim Thaci, the Prime Minister in waiting for Kosovo, who will decide when such a declaration is made....Any declaration of independence will force other states to decide whether to recognise Kosovo’s independence. That dilemma raises the old Balkan ghosts surrounding the break-up of Yugoslavia, in which domino-like independence declarations by Croatia, Slovenia and Bosnia set the stage for the Bosnian War."
Kosovo deadlock puts Balkans on the brink
London Times, 29 November 2007

"Kosovo’s Government adopted its new constitution yesterday in a low-key ceremony intended to mark the handover of UN administrative power to Pristina and the EU. The move was intended to cement the country’s independence and to complete the break-up of the former Yugoslavia after the conflicts of the 1990s. But Belgrade, backed by Moscow, insisted that it would never recognise Kosovo’s breakaway status, heightening fears of partition between the Serb-dominated north and the ethnic Albanians who make up about 95 per cent of the population. In reality, a full handover of UN authority could take many months and it is expected to remain a key player in the Serb half of the northern city of Mitrovica, where the EU has struggled to establish a presence. President Tadic of Serbia said he viewed the proclamation of the Kosovan constitution as illegal. 'Serbia views Kosovo as its southern province,' he said. 'It will defend its integrity by peaceful means, using diplomacy, without resorting to force.'”
Kosovo adopts new constitution with little fanfare
London Times, 16 June 2008

"Saudi Arabia is pouring hundreds of millions of pounds into Islamist groups in the Balkans, some of which spread hatred of the West and recruit fighters for jihad in Afghanistan. According to officials in Macedonia, Islamic fundamentalism threatens to destabilise the Balkans. Strict Wahhabi and Salafi factions funded by Saudi organisations are clashing with traditionally moderate local Muslim communities. Fundamentalists have financed the construction of scores of mosques and community centres as well as handing some followers up to Ł225 a month. They are expected not only to grow beards but also to persuade their wives to wear the niqab, or face veil, a custom virtually unknown in the liberal Islamic tradition of the Balkans. Government sources in traditionally secular Macedonia (official title the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia), said they were monitoring up to 50 Al-Qaeda volunteers recruited to fight in Afghanistan. Classified documents seen by The Sunday Times reveal that Macedonian officials are also investigating a number of Islamic charities, some in Saudi Arabia, which are active throughout the Balkans and are suspected of spreading extremism and laundering money for terrorist organisations. One of the groups under scrutiny is the International Islamic Relief Organisation from Saudi Arabia, which is on a United Nations blacklist of organisations backing terrorism. It did not respond to inquiries, but has previously denied involvement in terrorist activities, calling such claims 'totally unfounded'. According to its website, it works in 32 countries to provide relief to the victims of natural disasters and to carry out humanitarian, health and educational projects. 'Hundreds of millions have been poured into Macedonia alone in the past decade and most of it comes from Saudi Arabia,' said a government source. 'The Saudis’ main export seems to be ideology, not oil.' Sulejman Rexhepi, leader of the Islamic community in Macedonia, said a number of mosques had been forcibly taken over by radical groups. Four in central Skopje are no longer under the control of the official Islamic authorities. New imams claim they have been 'spontaneously' installed by the 'people'.... In some mosques believers are being told that Macedonia, which sent 200 soldiers to Iraq and Afghanistan, has been tricked into supporting a crusade against Islam spearheaded by Britain and America. Radical clerics have shown footage from Afghanistan, Iraq and the Palestinian territories to illustrate their claims that the West is waging war on Islam.....Macedonia’s law enforcement agencies warn that the European Union and America have failed to recognise the growing problem of Islamic extremism in the Balkans. Baroness Ashton, the EU foreign policy chief, has declared stability in the region to be her top priority, but local politicians complain that the EU and Nato are reducing their presence in troublespots such as Bosnia and Kosovo. Last month, Bosnian security forces raided a village strongly influenced by Salafi extremists and found a weapons cache. In raids elsewhere rifles, bombs and rocket-propelled grenades have been uncovered. The West has put considerable political and financial efforts into helping build democracy in Bosnia following its civil war in the 1990s. Saudi organisations have also asserted considerable influence, giving more than Ł450m to build more than 150 mosques and Islamic centres."
Saudis fund Balkan Muslims spreading hate of the West
Sunday Times, 28 March 2010

"A European Union prosecutor has named seven suspects in connection with an international organ trafficking network, BETA, EurActiv's partner in Serbia, reported today (12 November). According to press reports, at least one of them held a high position in Kosovo's health ministry. According to EULEX, the EU's law enforcement mission in Kosovo, an organised criminal group has been trafficking people into Kosovo for the purpose of using their organs for transplants to other people. The indictment was presented to the district court in Pristina, Karin Limdal, senior spokesperson for EULEX, confirmed to EurActiv. Asked if the uncovered case was related to alleged organ theft by the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) during the Kosovo war, Limdal did not comment (see 'Background'). She explained that judges are expected to confirm the indictment by the end of the month. This indictment would then be read out in court and subsequently become public. Limdal said she would provide no further details until this happens."
Kosovo official indicted for organ trafficking
EurActive, 12 November 2010


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Why They Are Really Doing It
Not For The People In the Middle East, The Caucasus Or The Balkans
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THE STRUGGLE FOR CONTROL
OF THE WORLD'S ENERGY RESOURCES

The Road (Pipeline Route) To Baku

"At the end of the 19th century, half of the oil in the world was produced in Azerbaijan, whose oil fields around the capital, Baku, were developed by the Nobel brothers, famed for dynamite and prizes. This is where they made their fortune. I had the pleasure of dining at their mansion a few years ago, a guest of government officials. Whatever others might have thought in that elegant house, I thought of Hitler urgently trying to reach Baku and its oil, and the fact that his disaster at Stalingrad was actually part of his attempt to seize Azerbaijan's oil fields. Azerbaijan was once the prize of empire. It is now independent in a very dangerous place. ... Since I continue to regard Azerbaijan as critical both in the struggle emerging in the Caucasus and to the United States, I continue to visit and continue to enjoy dinners that never end and rounds of toasts that test my liver. But I never forget one thing: Hitler risked everything to get to Baku and its oil. He failed to reach it, and the history of our time turns on that fact..... My latest trip had to do with a conference on U.S.-Azerbaijani relations. There are a small number of people in the United States who care about Azerbaijan and most of them were there, along with some congressmen, state representatives and a large numbers of Azeris. Compared with my first encounter with Azerbaijan, the number of people interested in the country has risen dramatically. Conferences on subjects like this are global. You can be in Washington, Singapore or Baku and it all looks the same. When you are in my business, you meet the same people several times a year.... In The Next 100 Years I forecast a number of events, beginning with the serious weakening of the European Union and the increase in relative power of Russia. Russia had its own problems, but between Europe's dependence on Russian energy and the fact that Russia had cash available to buy assets in Europe, the decline of Europe meant a more powerful Russia. The countries that would feel that power would be those bordering the former Soviet Union -- a line from Poland to Turkey and then from Turkey to Azerbaijan, the eastern anchor of Europe on the Caspian Sea. I wrote that the United States, withdrawing from its wars in the Islamic world, would be increasingly cautious and uncertain. The United States would continue to be the dominant power in the world, economically the most viable and with the most powerful military, but an adolescent power without foresight or balance in its actions.... The United States won the Cold War because the Soviets knocked themselves out. But a win is a win and the United States stood alone, really amazed to be where it was, talking about New World Orders, but truly clueless as to what it would do later. First it imagined that war had been abolished and that it was all about making money.... The point is that the United States is the world's global power but is lurching from conflict to conflict and from concept to concept. It takes awhile to understand how to use power. The British had to lose America before they started to get the idea. The United States is fortunate. It is rich and isolated, and even if terrorists kill some of us, we will not be occupied like France or Poland. We have time to grow up. This makes the rest of the world very uncomfortable. Sometimes the United States does inexplicable things. Sometimes it fails to do necessary things. When the United States makes a mistake it is mostly other countries that suffer or are placed at risk. So some of the world wishes the United States would disappear. It won't. Other parts of the world wish the United States take responsibility for their security. It won't.... This brings us back to Azerbaijan. It is a country that borders both Russia and Iran. In Russia it borders Dagestan; in Iran it borders the Iranian Azeri region. The bulk of Azeris live in Iran, where they are the largest ethnic minority group in the country (Ayatollah Ali Khamenei is an Azeri). Azerbaijan is a predominantly secular country. It feels threatened by Iranian Shiite terrorism and by Sunni Islamic terrorism in the north.... Azerbaijan finds itself in a tough place, and the country's position between Russia and Iran makes it critical. A secular Muslim state in this region hostile to both Iran and Russia is not all that common. Azerbaijan has another strategic virtue from the American point of view: energy. The Russian strategy has been to maintain and deepen European dependence on Russian energy, on the theory that this would both increase Russian influence and decrease the risk to Russian national security. The second phase of this strategy has been to limit alternatives for the Europeans, including Turkey. The complex tension over oil and natural gas pipelines boils down to the fact that the Russians do not want significant energy sources that are outside of Russian control to be available to Europe. It is in the American interest to try to limit Russian influence around its periphery in order to stabilize the pro-Western states there at a time when Europe is weak and disorganized.... a country doesn't go from being a Soviet republic to having an economy without corruption in a little more than 20 years.... Azerbaijan matters to the United States not because of its moral character. It matters because it is a wedge between Russia and Iran. Any regime that would follow the current one would likely be much worse in a moral sense and might be hostile to the United States. The loss of Azerbaijani oil to either Russia or Iran would increase the pressure on Turkey and eliminate energy alternatives along the periphery of Russia. The United States must adopt a strategy of early and low-risk support for strategic partners rather than sudden, spasmodic military responses to unanticipated crises. An independent Azerbaijan is a bone in Russia's and Iran's throat and an energy source for Turkey. And Azerbaijan pays cash for weapons that will be used by Azerbaijani troops and not by Americans... Both Hitler and Stalin understood that control of Baku meant control of the Eurasian landmass. The realities of energy have shifted but not to the extent that Baku doesn't remain critical."
George Friedman, Chairman of Stratfor - Geopolitical Journey: Azerbaijan and America
Stratfor, 11 June 2013

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